当前位置: 首页 >> 最新资讯列表 >> 最新资讯新闻
热烈祝贺白龙老师命中2014联考英语百分百考点
发布时间: 2014-08-27 14:08:08

2014年全国联考英语(二)客观题、翻译真题及答案解析

Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.

  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.

  While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.

  Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success. Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

1. [A] denied       [B] concluded       [C] doubled        [D] ensured

2. [A] protective       [B] dangerous       [C] sufficient        [D]troublesome

3. [A] Instead       [B] However        [C] Likewise        [D] Therefore

4. [A] indicator      [B] objective       [C] origin           [D] example

5. [A] impact      [B] relevance       [C] assistance         [D] concern

6. [A] in terms of    [B] in case of      [ C] in favor of       [D] in respect of

7. [A] measures       [B] determines      [C] equals          [D] modifies

8. [A] in essence       [B] in contrast       [C] in turn       [D] in part

9. [A] complicated       [B] conservative        [C] variable       [D] straightforward

10. [A] so        B] while       [C] since        [D] unless

11. [A] shape        [B] spirit        [C] balance       [D] taste

12. [A] start        [B] qualify        [C] retire       [D] stay

13. [A] strange        [B] changeable        [C] normal       [D] constant

14. [A] option        [B] reason       [C] opportunity       [D] tendency

15. [A] employed       [B] pictured       [C] imitated       [D] monitored

16. [A] compared        [B] combined       [C] settled        [D] associated

17. [A] Even        [B] Still        [C] Yet        [D] Only

18. [A] despised        [B] corrected       [C] ignored        [D] grounded

19. [A] discussions        [B] businesses        [C] policies        [D] studies

20. [A] for        [B] against       [C] with       [D] without

1、【答案】B concluded

 【解析】 题干中,一系列的研究已经_____,事实上,正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。根据句义,后面的部分实际上是研究的结论,因此concluded符合题意,其他选项denied(否认)与意义相反,doubled(翻倍)与题意较远,ensured(确保)不符合题意,因为研究不能确保后面的事实,只能得出后面的事实作为结论。所以正确答案为B

2、【答案】A protective

 【解析】 题干中,对于某些健康情况,超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论,超重能减少罹患疾病的风险,说明超重具有一定的保护作用。Dangerous和文章意思相反,sufficient表示充足,troublesome表示有麻烦,不符合题意,所以正确答案为A

3、【答案】C likewise

 【解析】第三句话中,较重的女人患缺钙的比例低于较瘦的女人。_____,在老年人中,一定程度上超重……。需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词语。A选项instead表示逆接的句意关系,B选项however也表示逆接,D选项therefore表示因此,只有C选项likewise意为同样地;也,而且。因此正确答案为C

4、【答案】A indicator

 【解析】本句话中,_____,一定程度上超重,经常是健康的_____A选项,表示指示器,指标。B选项objective表示客观;C选项origin表示来源,D选项example表示例子。根据前面的文章内容,已经明确指出超重代表了健康,因此超重是健康的指标。因此正确答案为A

5、【答案】D concern

 【解析】本句话的句意是,需要更加_____是,很难对肥胖加以定义。Aimpact(印象)Brelevance(相关性)Cassistance(辅助)Dconcern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康,但是又面临一个问题,到底如何去定义肥胖,因此需要更加关注的是对肥的定义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确答案为D

6、【答案】A in terms of

 【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数,或称为BMI来定义。Ain terms of ,根据……,就……而言。BIn case of 表示在某种情况下, Cin favor of 表示赞成,以……来取代,Din respect of,关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标,希望考生能够记住这一背景知识,方便日后做题。

7、【答案】C equals

 【解析】本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方,这里是用文字叙述了BMI指数得出的方法,也就是一个数学公式,所以equal符合题意。A measure(测量)B determine表示确定;D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平方。

8、【答案】C in turn

 【解析】本题题干中,肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。Ain essence(事实上、实际上) Bin contrast (相反地)Cin turn(依次) Din part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级,所以正确答案为C

9、【答案】D straightforward

  【解析】题干中,相比之下,这样的数字标准看起来_____,实际上不是的。Acomplicated (复杂)Bconservative(保守)Cvariable(可变的)Dstraightforward(直截了当);这里的数字标准指的就是肥胖指数,肥胖指数分为三类,而且算法比较简单,所以A复杂不正确,B选项保守,用于描述一种数学公式,不恰当,一名患者或一名受试者的BMI一般是确定的,因此可变的也不符合题意,D选项straightforward表示直截了当,符合题意,因此正确答案为D

10、【答案】B while

  【解析】本句中,一些人有很高的BMI,实际上身材正好,_____其他人有较低的BMI指数,可能_____。从前半句我们可以看出,有些人的BMI指数很高,应该属于体重肥胖的人,事实上身材正好,这里说明的是反常的现象,后半句是其他人的BMI指数较低,而_____较差。Aso(所以)Bwhile()Csince(因为)Dunless(除非)四个选项中只有while有转折的含义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确答案为B

11【答案】A shape

  【解析】本题可以简化为:Some are fit, while others may be in poor       。不难看出,前后意义相反,且fit(体型健康)in poor       对应,与之最相关是A shape(外形),故为正确答案。“精神”、“均衡”、“品味”都相差比较远,可以排除。

12、【答案】B qualify

  【解析】本题顺应前文意义:有一些人体型很好,有些人体型体型肥胖。接下来举例说有些专业足球运动员       是肥胖的,“开始”不符;“处在”也不符合句意;“退休”内容无关;“被认为”符合句意,正确。

13、【答案】C normal

  【解析】本句不难理解:有些人脂肪过高,但是BMI      。所需词汇明显是正向的,排除ABD属中性,且不符合句意,C(正常的)契合,为正确答案。

14、【答案】D tendency

  【解析】本题解题关键是后半句:to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖),作为划线部分的后置定语,将四个选项“选择”“理由”“机会”“倾向”代入划线处,最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)

15、【答案】C pictured

  【解析】空格所在句提到了媒体,根据语境,上句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖,所以本句的意思应该是媒体污蔑肥胖,四个选项中,跟媒体相关系的词汇只有C picture 意思为刻画,描写,描述。

16、【答案】D associated

  【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰,缺乏意志力,对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰,缺乏意志力和对成功的期望值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现,分析四个选项,A. 与。。。相比;B 与。。。相结合;C. 和。。。和解;都不符合题意,只有D与。。。相联系,相关符合句意。

17、【答案】A even

  【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重,而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本空格缺少一个副词,根据语境记忆常识,此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇,分析四个选项,只有A even 即使符合题意。

18、【答案】D grounded

  【解析】根据语境,空前讲到对肥胖的负面态度,空后讲到对健康的关注,

  激发一批反肥胖的____。本句没有出现任何转折词,说明空前后所表达的意思是一致的,反对肥胖,是基于对健康的关注,分析四个选项,能够表达此意思的词汇,只有选项D grounded,意思是基于。

19、【答案】D policies

  【解析】解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词汇,比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统中所出台的政策的问题,浏览四个选项,D选项policies 符合题意,直接入选。

20、【答案】B against

  【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖,本句话属于细节的句子,用来支持这个主题,空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童肥胖,甚至告诉奥兹博士,它代表了我们国家最大的安全威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对,反抗的意思,纵观四个选项,只有B against 符合题意。

 

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.

  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.

  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.

  Readers of “Happy Money” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?

  [A]A big house

  [B]A special tour

  [C]A stylish car

  [D]A rich meal

22. The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is

  [A]critical

  [B]supportive

  [C]sympathetic

  [D]ambiguous

23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that

  [A]consumers are sometimes irrational

  [B]popularity usually comes after quality

  [C]marketing tricks are after effective

  [D]rarity generally increases pleasure

24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money

  [A]has left much room for readers’ criticism

  [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  [C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us

  [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement

25. This text mainly discusses how to

  [A]balance feeling good and spending money

  [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

  [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent

  [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries

21、【答案】B  A special tour

  【解析】细节题。答案定位在第二段的“it is far better to spend money on experienceslike interesting trips…”,意思是“花钱消费在经历方面更好……,比如说有趣的旅行……”,由此可以得知答案是B选项“一场特别的旅行”。

22、【答案】A  critical

  【解析】观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的“something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it”,意思是“普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视,并且看电视几乎不可能更愉快”,因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是A选项“批判的”。

23、【答案】D  rarity generally increases pleasure

  【解析】观点例证题。答案定位在第三段,文章中提到Mc Rib这个例子,用这个例子证明的论点是“luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly”,大意是“有节制地消费奢侈品最令人愉悦”,D选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。

24、【答案】B  may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  【解析】细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句“most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent”,大意是“大多数人看完这本书后,认为物有所值”,因此可以推知B选项是正确答案。

25、【答案】A  balance feeling good and spending money

  【解析】主旨题。纵观全文可知,全文主要谈论花钱消费和心情愉悦之间的关系,因此答案定位在A选项。

 

Text 2

  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.

  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.

  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photograph of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study, it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognize the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest, says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.

26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.

  [A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect

  [C] our need for leadership is unnatural

  [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______

  [A] rapid watching

  [B] conscious choice

  [C] intuitive response

  [D] automatic self-defense

28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______

  [A] underestimate their insecurities

  [B] believe in their attractiveness

  [C] cover up their depressions

  [D] oversimplify their illusions

29. The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.

  [A]instinctively

  [B]occasionally

  [C]particularly

  [D]aggressively

30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can _____.

  [A]present their dishonest profiles

  [B]define their traditional life styles

  [C]share their intellectual pursuits

[D]withhold their unflattering sides

26、【答案】A  our self-ratings are unrealistically high
【解析】题目问 “根据第一段,社会心理学家发现了什么?”对应于文章第一      段第三句“社会心理学家对所谓的‘高于均数效应’或者‘虚幻的优越感’进行大量的研究,发现我们中70%的人认为自己的领导力在平均水平之上……—这些数据明显都是不可能的。”由此可知,我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high
27
、【答案】C  intuitive response
【解析】题目问“视觉识别被认为是人们的什么?”对应于文章第三段第三句“视觉识别是自动的心理过程,这个过程依靠直觉快速发生,且并不是故意的。”由此可知,视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故答案为[C] intuitive response

28、【答案】B  believe in their attractiveness

  【解析】题目问“Epley发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样”。对应到第四段,第二句讲到“没有证据显示那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为了掩饰自己的不安全,接着讲到:事实上,那些认为自己的形象高于吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人,故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness

29、【答案】[A] instinctively

  【解析】题目问“最接近viscerally的意思的是?”。对应到第五段,viscerally所在句讲到“许多人讨厌照片中的自己,从某种层面上说,他们甚至不承认照片中的人是他们自己。”而下文又讲到facebook是自我拔高者的天堂,在那里人们可以分享最满意的的照片。”由此可知,viscerally在本句中是“本质上地”意思,故答案为[A] instinctively

  30、【答案】[D]withhold their unflattering sides

  【解析】题干问“我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂,是因为人们可以做什么?”对应于文章最后一段的第二句,该句讲到“在脸书(facebook)中,人们可以分享最满意的照片。”下文接着讲到“不是人们不诚实,而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。”故答案为[D]withhold their unflattering sides

 

Text 3

The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries. And yet, it would be a mistake to think we are right now simply experiencing the painful side of a boom and bust cycle. Certain jobs have gone away for good, outmoded by machines. Since technology has such an insatiable appetite for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructure our economy in ways we can't immediately foresee.  

When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened. This argument has attracted a lot of attention, via the success of the book Race Against the Machine, by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, who both hail from MIT's Center for Digital Business.

    This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel, author of The Power of Pull and other books, says Brynjolfsson and McAfee miss the reason why these jobs are so vulnerable to technology in the first place. 

Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be "tightly scripted" and "highly standardized" ones that leave no room for "individual initiative or creativity." In short, these are the types of jobs that machines can perform much better at than human beings. That is how we have put a giant target sign on the backs of American workers, Hagel says. 

It's time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20th century notion of work, Hagel says. In our rapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination "to respond to unexpected events." That's not something machines are good at. They are designed to perform very predictable activities.

  As Hagel notes, Brynjolfsson and McAfee indeed touched on this point in their book. We need to reframe race against the machine as race with the machine. In other words, we need to look at the ways in which machines can augment human labor rather than replace it. So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, "how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?"

31. According to the first paragraph, economic downturns would _____.

[A]ease the competition of man vs. machine

[B]highlight machines threat to human jobs

[C]provoke a painful technological revolution

[D]outmode our current economic structure

32. The authors of Race Against the Machine argue that _____.

[A]technology is diminishing mans job opportunities

[B]automation is accelerating technological development

[C]certain jobs will remain intact after automation

[D]man will finally win the race against machine

33. Hagel argues that jobs in the U.S. are often _____.

[A]performed by innovative minds

[B]scripted with an individual style 

[C]standardized without a clear target

[D]designed against human creativity

34. According to the last paragraph, Brynjolfsson and McAfee discussed _____.

[A]the predictability of machine behavior in practice

[B]the formula for how work is conducted efficiently

[C]the ways machines replace human labor in modern times

[D]the necessity of human involvement in the workplace

35. Which of the following could be the most appropriate title for the text?

[A]How to Innovate Our Work Practices

[B]Machines will Replace Human Labor 

[C]Can We Win the Race Against Machines

[D]Economic Downturns Stimulate Innovations

31.【答案】B
【解析】细节推断题。根据题干关键词first paragrapheconomic downturns定位到第一段第一句but之后,转折处必出题,第二句说“认为我们现在只是经历繁荣与经济爆破痛苦的一面是错误的”,接下来的第三句是答案所在“某些工作永远的消失了,机器使之过时了”。 对应选项B“突出了及其对人类工作的威胁”。

32.【答案】A
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键词Race Against the Machine定位到第二段第二句,This argument指代的是第一句的内容When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened. “当技术价格和性能迅速提升时,曾经被认为对自动化免疫的工作开始受到威胁”,对应A“技术正在减少人的工作机会”。

33.【答案】D
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键词Hagel。。。in the US, 定位到第四段第一句Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be "tightly scripted" and "highly standardized" ones that leave no room for "individual initiative or creativity."“我们在美国设计的工作往往是。。。。,即没有预留个人自发性和创造性的空间”,对应D选项“美国的工作通常是反对人类创造性的”。

34.【答案】B
【解析】细节推断题。根据题干关键词
last paragraph, Brynjolfsson and McAfee,定位到第六段第一句As Hagel notes,所以我们只要在上文找到Hagel的观点就可以了,定位到第无段的第一句It's time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20th century notion of work, Hagel says. “到了对如何进行工作做的模式进行革新的时候了”以及最后一段的第末句So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, "how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?"因此,问题实际上不是关于技术,而是关于“我们如何创新制度和工作行为”。对应B“他们探讨了如何有效工作的模式”。

35.【答案】C
【解析】主旨题。作主旨题找关键词,结合全篇,本文的关键词machinehumanwe,根据第五段第二句In our rapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination "to respond to unexpected events."在快速变化的经济中,我们更需要人,所以B不对。最后一段第二句We need to reframe race against the machine as race with the machine.“我们应该把与机器比赛改为‘与机器并肩作战’”。两者应该是并存,对应C

 

Text 4

  When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.

  Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.

  Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.

  The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.

  There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.

  Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.

  But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.

36. The author believes that the housing sector__

  [A] has attracted much attention

  [B] involves certain political factors

  [C] shoulders too much responsibility

  [D] has lost its real value in economy

37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__

  [A] increased its home supply

  [B] offered spending opportunities

  [C] suffered government biases

  [D] disappointed the government

38. According to Paragraph 5, George Osborne may_______.

  [A] allow greater government debt for housing

  [B] stop local authorities from building homes

  [C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt

  [D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast

39. It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.

  [A]lower the costs of registered providers

  [B]lessen the impact of government interference

  [C]contribute to funding new developments

  [D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities

40. The author believes that after 2015,the government may______.

  [A]implement more policies to support housing

  [B]review the need for large-scale public grants

  [C]renew the affordable housing grants programme

[D]stop generous funding to the housing sector

36、【答案】[B] involves certain political factors

  【解析】根据本题题干中的关键词housing sector可以对应到文章的第二段, 中间说的很多,我们注意到最后有but出现,最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点,另外这里用了the most significant 最高级,所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因,politically charged和选项Bpolitical factors有对应关系,故选B involves certain political factors

  A项的吸引注意没有提及,C项的承担太多责任,原文说的shoulder the blameD项说的丧失价值,原文说的是不善于表明真正价值,两者不一致,故排除。

37、【答案】[C] suffered government biases

  【解析】经济适用房曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一边并且采取一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。Suffered 是过去式,是对于原文history 的同义反复,biases 是对原文prejudices的同义反复。

38、【答案】[A] allow greater government debt for housing

  【解析】根据人名George Osborne定位得知,此人将会让当地政府用来偿还建房借贷的限额变得更加宽松,并且在借贷限额放宽的情况下,将会另有60,000所房屋在未来的五年中建立,并由此拉动国内生产总值的百分之零点六。因此A(允许更大的政府的建房借贷)是正确的,而B(禁止当地政府建房)C(准备减少建房借贷)D(发布国内生产总值增长的预报)都与原文意思不符。

39、【答案】[C] contribute to funding new developments

  【解析】推断题。根据文章题干定位到第五段,题干考察的是对稳定的租赁环境的理解。A项的意思是“减少注册供应者的成本”,其中“成本一词”并未在文中出现,属于无中生有。B项的意思是“减少政府接介入的影响”,其中“政府介入”并未在文中出现,属于无中生有。B项的意思是“有助于为新发展提供资金支持”,其中“为新发展提供资金支持”对应文中的“fund new developments”;C选项中的“contribute to(意思是有助于)对英文中的have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响),符合正解的同义复现原则,所以是正确选项。

40、【答案】[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector

【解析】推断题。根据题干定位到最后一段第三行。考察的是2015年以后政府的可能性动作。A项的意思是“推行更多的政策来支持住房”与原文意义相反。B项的意思是重新审视大规模公共拨款的需求,与原文倒数第二段意义相违背。C项的意思是更新可负担的住房拨款项目并没有提到renew一词。D项的意思是停止对住房部门的大额资助,与原文的倒数第二句相匹配,故为正确选项。

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the left column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

The term Land Art brings to mind epic interventions in the land such as Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, 6,500 tons of basalt, earth and salt projecting into Utah’s Great Salt Lake, or Roden Crater, an extinct volcano in Arizona, which James Turrell has been transforming into an immense naked-eye observatory since 1979.

Richard Long’s A Line Made By Walking, however, involved nothing more strenuous than a 20-minute train ride from Waterloo. Having got off somewhere in suburbia, the artist walked backwards and forwards over a piece of grass until the squashed turf formed a line – a kind of drawing on the land.

Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies, Land Art was one of a range of new forms, including Body Art, Performance Art, Action Art and Installation Art, which pushed art beyond the traditional confines of the studio and gallery. Rather than portraying landscape, land artists used the physical substance of the land itself as their medium.

The message of this survey of British land art – the most comprehensive to date – is that the British variant, typified by Long’s piece, was not only more domestically scaled, but a lot quirkier than its American counterpart. Indeed, while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Art would consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves, Long’s photograph of his work is the work. Since his “action” is in the past the photograph is its sole embodiment.

That might seem rather an obscure point, but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects.

Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.

Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.

Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating towards landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn’t apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Wordsworth would have readily understood. Derek Jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.

In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can’t help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn’t about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.               

                                    

 

[A] originates from a long walk that the artist took

41. Stone Circle

[B] illustrates a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art

42. Olaf Street Study

[C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition.

43. Across the Park

[D] represents the elegance of the British land art

44. Towards Avebury

[E] depicts the ordinary side of the British land art

45. Seven days

[F] embodies a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors

 

[G] contains images from different parts of the same photograph.

41、【答案】D

【解析】对应原文“Long is Britains best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form.”(朗是英国最著名的“土地艺术家”,他的作品“石环”所用石头是来自于波蒂斯黑德海滩,展示在画廊的地板上,体现了该类作品优雅和稀缺的一面) D选项represents the elegance of the British land art(体现了英国土地艺术中的优雅的特点),其中represent对应文中representelegance 对应文中elegant, British对应文中Britains, land art对应文中Land Artist.

42【答案】E

【解析】 对应原文“Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity (尘俗) that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most of the time. E选项 depicts the ordinary side of the British land art,其中ordinary side是对原文mundanitymost of our experience的概括。

43【答案】G

【解析】对应原文“Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliards very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph. G选项contains images from different parts of the same photograph,其中contain对应原文in which, images from different parts of the same photograph与原文一致。

44【答案】C

【解析】对应原文 Derek Jarmans yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes(唤起) a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.C选项reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition,其中reminds对应原文evokesEnglish landscape painting tradition对应a tradition of English landscape painting.

45【答案】A

【解析】对应原文 “…you cant help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, …” A选项originates from a long walk that the artist took,其中a long walk 对应原文walkingepic walk (远足)the artist took对应原文find a way of making his love of walking pay(找一种办法让他尝到了酷爱步行的回报),说明该艺术家喜欢步行,并在途中创作出作品。

 

Section III Translation

  Most people would define optimism as being eternally hopeful, endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half full. But that’s exactly the kind of false cheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimism means being in touch with reality,” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor. According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.

  Ben-Shahar uses three optimistic exercises. When he feels down — say, after giving a bad lecture — he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction. He analyzes the weak lecture, learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there’s perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

  在大部分人眼中,乐观主义就意味着永远满怀希望、无忧无虑,遇事只往好的方面想。然而积极心理学专家认为这种乐观只是假象,不建议人们这么做。哈佛大学教授塔尔·本沙哈尔指出:健康的乐观主义应该是切合实际的。他认为,现实的乐观主义者会尽力让事事顺利,而不是迷信万事大吉。

  本沙哈尔提出了三步乐观法。第一步:在碰到例如演讲表现糟糕这种让人沮丧的情况时,他首先会安慰自己人非圣贤,不是所有的演讲都能拿到诺贝尔奖,总会有些演讲的效果不如他人。第二步:重现场景。他会对这次失败的演讲进行分析,总结优缺点,为以后的演讲吸取经验教训。第三步:形成这样一个观念,要明白在生命的宏大蓝图中,一次演讲着实微不足道。

点评:原文是一篇有关“乐观”的议论文,在语言上并没有什么难度,但其中一些表达涉及到文化相关知识,比如“a half-full glass”以及“to be human”等,需要译者理解其中的文化内涵,在翻译时选择合适的策略,准确表达出原文的效果。因此,在平时的练习过程中要注意文化知识的积累,采用灵活的策略和技巧,保证译文内容上的忠实和语言上的流畅。试题来源于2009326日的时代杂志,原文标题是A Primer for Pessimists原文作者是Alice Park。今年试题与往年相比,有以下异同点:

1.     保持英语二翻译一贯的简单,依然是偶有长难句。

2.     保持英语二翻译一贯的特色,偏向生活化,谈论的都是大家所关心的生活中的问题。

3.     保持英语二翻译一贯的来源,喜欢从英美国家报刊杂志中选题,但是今年的选题文章较早,是2009年度的文章。

 

我们十年磨砺: 荟萃名师阵容 铸就宝典真经 专心建设攻硕航母平台

我们与考俱进: 优秀的你们  选择优秀的我们 共铸事业辉煌!

欢迎加入我们北京SUCCESS硕士教育集团沈阳直属分校 百源欣才

专业 权威 一切为了考生  零起点  个性化  用心为你的备考保驾护航!

春节前报名,马年空前优惠!

免费热线:024-62881851 13352439789

办公及教学一部:沈阳市府广场新华科技大厦0207

教学二部:东北大学机电馆101

教学三部:辽宁大学皇姑校区院内

 

  相关阅读
2018在职研究生<考点系统...
李占斌校长 中文写作9月2...
2018考研在职研究生强化...
2018名师康勇逻辑7月29日...
2018在职研究生<系统班...
百源欣才在职研究生<15周...
责任编辑:
   ※最新资讯
2018在职研究生<考点系统...
李占斌校长 中文写作9月2...
2018考研在职研究生强化...
2018名师康勇逻辑7月29日...
2018在职研究生<系统班...
百源欣才在职研究生<15周...
2018在职研究生<晚课>6月...
2018在职研究生<系统精讲...
2018在职研究生<系统精讲...
2018在职研究生基础2班3...
   ※学员感悟