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英语阅读100篇精读荟萃
发布时间: 2013-01-31 14:00:52

英语阅读100篇精读荟萃(中级篇)

Passage One (Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice)

       In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.

 

       The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law.

 

       Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each others problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. Talk, talk, talk, the advocates of violence say, all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser. Its rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. Possible, my lord, the barrister replied, none the wiser, but surely far better informed. Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom: the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.

 

 

 

1.       What is the best title for this passage?

[A] Advocating Violence.

[B] Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice.

[C] Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution.

[D] The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.

 

2.       Recorded history has taught us

[A] violence never solves anything.

[B] nothing.

[C] the bloodshed means nothing.

[D] everything.

 

3.       It can be inferred that truly reasonable men

[A] cant get a hearing.

[B] are looked down upon.

[C] are persecuted.

[D] Have difficulty in advocating law enforcement.

 

4.       He was none the wiser means

[A] he was not at all wise in listening.

[B] He was not at all wiser than nothing before.

[C] He gains nothing after listening.

[D] He makes no sense of the argument.

 

5.       According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is

[A] law enforcement.

[B] knowledge.

[C] nonviolence.

[D] Mopping up the violent mess.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       acute               严重的,剧烈的,敏锐的

 

2.       loot                 v.抢劫,掠夺;n.赃物

 

3.       pillage             v.抢劫,掠夺

 

4.       crunch             v.吱嘎吱嘎咬或嚼某物;n.碎裂声

when it comes to the crunch = if/when the decisive moment comes. 当关键时刻来到时。

 

5.       war-paint         出战前涂于身上的颜料。(美印第安战士用)

 

6.       come to light = become known      显露,为人所知

 

7.       sap                  剥削,使伤元气,破坏

I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. 我住院治疗几个月,大伤元气。

 

8.       mop up           擦去,对付,处理

 

9.       wake               船迹,航迹

in the wake of sth. = come after 随某事之后到来。

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all.

【结构简析】when it comes to the crunch = when / if the decisive moment comes.当关键时刻来到时。

【参考译文】真正令人可怖的,令人绝望的是,在关键时刻,人们意识到我们一点儿也没有进步/前进。

 

2.       Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake.

【结构简析】in the wake of 在…之后。

【参考译文】由于我们不得不清理掉暴力之后所留下的烂摊子,我们的力量因此削弱了。

 

3.       After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser.

【结构简析】none + the + 比较级。固定用法,义:not at all 一点儿也不。EX: After the treatment, he is none the better.治疗后,他并没有因此见好,(一点儿也不见好)。

【参考译文】听了律师的长篇解释,法官抱怨说他一无所获,并不因此变得聪明些。

 

4.       Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom.

【参考译文】知识是智慧的必要的先决条件。结合上下文这里意思是:了解情况是解决问题的先决条件。句子后面的解释:知识是指了解它欲以解决暴力制造的恶行。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       作者主要以对比的手法写出了暴力是有些国家用以解决种族差异的公认方法,这是人本性没有进步的表现,真正理智的人提出了法制才是解决问题的唯一途径,而这些人遭人轻视、迫害。作者指出如果我们把使用暴力的一半精力放在消除贫民窟,改善生活水平,提供教育和就业,清除暴力造成的后果,也就是通过对它以法治理是能真正解决种族问题的。尽管这些暴力者采取充耳不闻的态度。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       B 暴力难以消除种族偏见。文章一开始就提出有些国家种族偏见严重,而暴力却是公认的一种解决方法。白人采用暴力镇压,黑人以防火、掠抢为反抗。而双方的大人物平静地论及暴力,似乎这是一种合法的解决方案。作者就此指出人类的进步只在于表面――衣饰等,人类的本能没有改变。整个有记录历史的文件没有教会人类任何东西。这是真正令人可怕的事件。

第二段论及真正有理智的懂得解决方案所在的人鼓吹法制,人们不停。他们反而收到轻视、迫害。作者就此提出假设,答出真正的解决方案嗜法制,以法治理。

第三段进一步说明“交流、对话”是了解双方问题的前提,即使暴力者不同意,但知道暴力制造它假装要解决的罪恶,是智慧聪明的必要前提。

A.鼓吹暴力。C.双方重要人物都把暴力作为合法的解决方案。D. 人类的本性是嗜暴性。

 

2.       B没有什么。第一段中就明确提出整个人类有记录历史又长又臭的暴力文件记录,一点都没有教给我们任何东西。

A.暴力解决不了任何事情。C.杀戮(流血)没有任何意义。D.一切。

 

3.       D在鼓吹法制方面有困难。答案在第二段,真正有理智的人鼓吹法制,遭到同类们的轻视、不信任和迫害。他们发现要人倾听他们的意见越来越困难。

A.人们不听。B.遭人轻视。C.遭人迫害。这三项都包含在D项内。

 

4.       C听后无所得。None the wiser一点也不比以前聪明(这是按字面翻译)。实际就是C项。

A.在倾听别人上他一点也不聪明。B.他和以前一个样。D.他听不懂论点。

 

5.       A法制。第二段最后一句,如果我们在法律的构架中进行工作,真正的持久的解决总是能实现的。第二段第二句,他们遭到迫害是因为他们鼓吹法制这种显然令人不能容忍的事。

B.知识。C.非暴力。D.处理暴力带来的混乱。

 

 

 

Passage Two (The Tourist Trade Contributes Absolutely Nothing to Increasing Understanding between Nations)

       The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going, youd expect greater understanding to develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it! Superb systems of communication by air, sea and land make it possible for us to visit each others countries at a moderate cost. What was once the grand tour, reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybodys grasp? The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldnt have dreamed of. But whats the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other?

 

       Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted, sheltered life. He lives at international hotels, where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own; and anyway, language is always a barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst, this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization. The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire: are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella, but fish and chips.

 

       The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We dont see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities, say, French, German, English, American and Italian. Now in your mind, match them with these five adjectives: musical, amorous, cold, pedantic, native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned, these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels, the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that, say, Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites of that Latin peoples shout a lot. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade does its best to prevent you?

 

       Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic facthow trite it sounds! That all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.

 

 

 

1.       The best title for this passage is

[A] tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations.

[B] Tourism is tiresome.

[C] Conducted tour is dull.

[D] tourism really does something to ones country.

 

2.       What is the authors attitude toward tourism?

[A] apprehensive.

[B] negative.

[C] critical.

[D] appreciative.

 

3.       Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?

[A] silent.

[B] noisy.

[C] lively.

[D] active.

 

4.       The purpose of the authors criticism is to point out

[A] conducted tour is disappointing.

[B] the way of touring should be changed.

[C] when traveling, you notice characteristics which confirm preconception.

[D] national stereotypes should be changed.

 

5.       What is grand tour now?

[A] moderate cost.

[B] local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization.

[C] people enjoy the first-rate comforts.

[D] everybody can enjoy the grand tour.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       superb                    卓越的,杰出的,第一流的

 

2.       moderate                中庸的,中等的,适度的

 

3.       grand tour                     大旅行,指旧时英国富家子弟教育中,到欧洲大陆观光的旅行,为学业必经阶段。

 

4.       package tour           由旅行社代办而费用与路线、日程固定的假日旅游。也可用package holiday

 

5.       chartered flight              包机航班

 

6.       set out to do sth. = begin a job with a particular aim    开始做某事,决心/打算做……

 

7.       cosset                     宠爱,溺爱,纵容

 

8.       conducted tour = guided tour         有人指导/引到下的参观,有导游的旅游         

 

9.       censor                    检查

 

10.   wander off              离开原处/正道,离群,漫步,漫游

 

11.   quarters                  住处,营

 

12.   paella                     西班牙什锦饭

 

13.   chip                       炸马铃薯条(土豆条)

 

14.   amorous                 多情的,色情的

 

15.   pedantic                 学究式的,卖弄学问的

 

16.   generalization         归纳,概括

 

17.   stir up                    惹起,煽动,挑起

 

18.   trite                       陈腐的,老一套的

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       What was once the grand tour, reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybodys grasp.

【结构简析】within sb.s grasp.某人理解/了解,为某人所能抓到的。

【参考译文】一度只有最富有者专享的“大旅行”现在人人都可获得。

 

2.       The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at.

【参考译文】旅行社包办的旅游,包机航班决不会遭人耻笑。

 

3.       They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population.

【参考译文】旅行社有意使他们的谷底和当地居民少接触。

 

4.       The modern tourist heads a cosseted sheltered life.

【参考译文】现代旅行者过的使爱护有加与世隔绝的生活。

 

5.       Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored.

【参考译文】有人指导下参观一些静电收到组织者――旅行社仔细的检查核准。

 

6.       A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own; and anyway, language is always barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way.

【结构简析】only too + 形容词/分词 = very非常。

【参考译文】严格致密的计划值得旅行者不可能自己一个人到处闲逛;再说,至少语言总是个障碍,所以他对这样保护非常高兴。

 

7.       At its very worst, this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization.

【结构简析】at ones worst 在情况最坏的时候。

【参考译文】最糟的时候,这种保护会导致形成一种新型而又可怕的殖民现象。

 

8.       Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous.

【结构简析】carried to an extreme (to an excess )如果做得过分。

【参考译文】如果走向极端,模式化的想法会非常危险。

 

9.       Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact.

【参考译文】野蛮(乱七八糟)的概括/归纳会激起种族仇恨,使我们对这基本事实视而不见。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       文章主要采用因果写法。虽然旅游业发展,人们可享受以前只有最富有者享受的大旅游,但由于旅行社种种限制/呵护及其它,使旅游者难以和当地居民接触。陈旧的固定的想――对民族的模式化想法,只有通过接触才能接触模式。而旅行社的种种都使人相互难以理解。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 旅游对增进民族了解毫无建树。第二段开始点出,许多旅游组织直接负责旅游事宜,他们有意识不让旅游者接触当地居民,让他们过着一种关怀备至又与世隔绝的生活。住的是国际饭店,吃的是国际食品,喝的是国际饮料,在原处观看当地居民。严格有序的计划使旅游者难以自己一人闲逛,语言的障碍,又使他们乐意接受保护。第三段涉及坚持民族模式化――老一套的想法,所以一开始旅游,你见到的民族特性就只是证实了你自己设想的基本事实――所有人民都是人类。只有交朋友才能知道民族模式是多么荒谬、有害,可是旅行社竭力制止,你又怎么能交上外国朋友呢?这一切说明A项对。

B.旅游很累。C.导游观光很单调乏味。D.旅游确实对国家有贡献。

 

2.       C 批评。

 

3.       B 吵吵闹闹的。

 

4.       B 旅游的方式应改变。整篇文章(除第一段外)都环绕旅游方式不理想来进行批评。第二段集中在导游观光使旅游者难以和当地人民接触。第三段,见到的只是证实了旅游者本人事先形成的思想/先入之见,旅游根本达不到了解对方的目的。第四段讲了民族固定模式(先入之见的模式)的可怕后果。要使人懂得所有的人们都是人类,彼此相似,又各具特点,就得改变旅游的方式。

A.导游观光令人失望。C.旅游时,你见到的 特性证实了你的先入之见。D.民族模式应当改变。这三条都是批评的具体内容。

 

5.       D 人人都能享受大旅游。大旅行是专指英国富家子弟上学中的一门课程-到欧洲大陆观光。不是人人都能享受。这里用grand tour表示人人都能享受类似grand tour的一切,甚至超过,如第一段指出:现代旅游者享受的舒适设施,达到了大旅行中老爷、小姐们做梦都没有想到的水平。海陆空高级交流联络通讯系统,使人们有可能钱花得不多就能访问、观光别的国家。所以说,曾是有钱人专享的大旅行,普通人也能领略。“grand tour”有引号,表明作为比喻。

A.费用不高。文内是费用合适、中等、恰当。B.当地观光受组织审查。C.人们喜欢一流舒适设施。

 

 

 

Passage Three (Pop Stars Earn Much)

       Pop stars today enjoy a style of living which was once the prerogative only of Royalty. Wherever they go, people turn out in their thousands to greet them. The crowds go wild trying to catch a brief glimpse of their smiling, colorfully dressed idols. The stars are transported in their chauffeur driven Rolls-Royces, private helicopters or executive aeroplanes. They are surrounded by a permanent entourage of managers, press agents and bodyguards. Photographs of them appear regularly in the press and all their comings and goings are reported, for, like Royalty, pop stars are news. If they enjoy many of the privileges of Royalty, they certainly share many of the inconveniences as well. It is dangerous for them to make unscheduled appearances in public. They must be constantly shielded from the adoring crowds which idolize them. They are no longer private individuals, but public property. The financial rewards they receive for this sacrifice cannot be calculated, for their rates of pay are astronomical.

 

       And why not? Society has always rewarded its top entertainers lavishly. The great days of Hollywood have become legendary: famous stars enjoyed fame, wealth and adulation on an unprecedented scale. By todays standards, the excesses of Hollywood do not seem quite so spectacular. A single gramophone record nowadays may earn much more in royalties than the films of the past ever did. The competition for the title Top of the Pops is fierce, but the rewards are truly colossal.

 

       It is only right that the stars should be paid in this way. Dont the top men in industry earn enormous salaries for the services they perform to their companies and their countries? Pop stars earn vast sums in foreign currency often more than large industrial concerns and the taxman can only be grateful fro their massive annual contributions to the exchequer. So who would begrudge them their rewards?

 

       Its all very well for people in humdrum jobs to moan about the successes and rewards of others. People who make envious remarks should remember that the most famous stars represent only the tip of the iceberg. For every famous star, there are hundreds of others struggling to earn a living. A man working in a steady job and looking forward to a pension at the end of it has no right to expect very high rewards. He has chosen security and peace of mind, so there will always be a limit to what he can earn. But a man who attempts to become a star is taking enormous risks. He knows at the outset that only a handful of competitors ever get to the very top. He knows that years of concentrated effort may be rewarded with complete failure. But he knows, too, that the rewards for success are very high indeed: they are the recompense for the huge risks involved and if he achieves them, he has certainly earned them. Thats the essence of private enterprise.

 

 

 

1.       The sentence Pop stars style of living was once the prerogative only of Royalty means

[A] their life was as luxurious as that of royalty.

[B] They enjoy what once only belonged to the royalty.

[C] They are rather rich.

[D] Their way of living was the same as that of the royalty.

 

2.       What is the authors attitude toward top stars high income?

[A] Approval.

[B] Disapproval.

[C] Ironical.

[D] Critical.

 

3.       It can be inferred from the passage

[A] there exists fierce competition in climbing to the top.

[B] People are blind in idolizing stars.

[C] Successful Pop stars give great entertainment.

[D] The tax they have paid are great.

 

4.       What can we learn from the passage?

[A] Successful man should get high-income repayment.

[B] Pop stars made great contribution to a country.

[C] Pop stars can enjoy the life of royalty.

[D] Successful men represent the tip of the iceberg.

 

5.       Which paragraph covers the main idea?

[A] The first.

[B] The second.

[C] The third.

[D] The fourth.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       prerogative             权力,(尤指)特权

 

2.       chauffeur                受雇开车人,(尤指富人、要人的)司机

 

3.       entourage               随行人员,伴随者,近侍;建筑物周围

 

4.       astronomical           庞大的,天文的

 

5.       adulation                奉承

 

6.       gramophone            灌音

 

7.       colossal                  巨大的

 

8.       exchequer               国库,财源

  Exchequer Bond 国库债券

 

9.       begrudge                感到不快/不满,忌妒

 

10.   humdrum               平淡的,单调的

 

11.   moan                            呻吟声

  moan about     发牢骚

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       the prerogative of Royaltythe royal prerogative

皇家的特权(再英国指国王名义上享有不经议会认可而采取行动的权力)。

 

2.       People turn out in their thousands to greet them.

【结构简析】turn out露面、集合、出席。EX: A vast crowd turned out to watch the match.大批观众到场观看比赛。

【参考译文】成千上万的人们出来欢迎他们。

 

3.       The great days of Hollywood have become legendry.

【参考译文】好莱坞鼎盛时期成了神话。

 

4.       By todays standards, the excesses of Hollywood do not seem quite so spectacular.

【参考译文】按今天的标准来看,好莱坞的奢华(过分的行为)似乎并不那么引人注目。

 

5.       A single gramophone record nowadays may earn much more in royalties than the films of the past ever did.

【参考译文】今天单张录音唱片挣的版税要比过去一步电影还要多得多。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       作者以对比、因果写作手法,写出歌星享受者贵族般生活方式,出门受千万人群欢迎,出入高级车、机,身后保镖、经纪人、新闻记者,来去都有报道,这一切是社会对高级演员的慷慨赠予。公司的高级人员享受高薪,歌星也应享受。再则顶尖歌星冒有很大风险。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       B 他们享受一度只属于贵族享用的一切。第一段集中谈了这些:他们走到哪里,成千上万人们出来欢迎,却中发疯地要看一眼穿着花哨的偶像的笑容。这些歌星坐着司机开动的Rolls-Royces汽车、私人直升飞机,高级长官飞机到处走,永远围着一批经纪人、报界记者和保镖随从人员。他们的照片定期登在报刊上,因为歌星象贵族一样是新闻人物。

A.他们的生活和贵族一样奢侈。C.他们很富。D.他们的生活方式和贵族生活方式一个样。

 

2.       A 赞成。在第一段最后一句:“他们为他们的牺牲所获取的报酬难以计算,支付率惊人。”第二段一开始就点明“为什么不惊人?社会对高级表演者总是慷慨解囊。好莱坞的鼎盛时期名扬天下,著名歌星先手空前绝后的名、利、奉承。”第三段更明确指出:应该这样支付星族,这完全正确。企业中的顶尖人物因为他们为公司和国家所作的一切不也挣得高额工资?税务员应感谢他们每年为国库做出了巨大的贡献。所以谁会忌妒他们的报酬呢?最后一段进一步说明:欲成为星族的人冒着很大的风险,谁都知道只有一小撮人能成为顶尖人物,也可能多年的努力以彻底失败而告终,而成功的报酬确实很高,这是对他们冒险的补偿。这些内容都说明作者赞成巨额报酬。

A.不同意。C.讽刺的。D.批评的。

 

3.       A 在攀登顶峰中存在着激烈的竞争。这在第三段最后一句明确指出:获取顶尖的流行歌星的称号竞争激烈,但其报酬确实惊人。最后一段的风险说。还有最后一段第二句:说忌妒话的人应记住:最有名的星族代表的只是冰山之巅――人极少。每个成名的歌星身后就有成千上百个其他歌者为生存而奋斗。这都说明“竞争激烈”。

B.人们盲目崇拜偶像歌星。C.成功的流行歌星演出给人极大的享受。D.他们支付的税收巨大。

 

4.       D 成功者只是冰山的顶尖――少极了。

A.成功的人应当获得高收入。B.流行歌星对国家做出巨大贡献。C.流行歌星能享受贵族生活。

 

5.       D 第四段。主旨句是倒数第一、二句,成功的报酬确实很高,这是对其高度风险的还报补偿,如果他成功了,他肯定挣得多。那就是私人事业的根本/本质。

A.第一段。这段之对比了贵族和歌星的生活方式。B.第二段。这段讲了挣得多,但竞争激烈。C.第三段。歌星和企业顶尖人物对比。

 

 

 

Passage Four (Examinations Exert a Pernicious Influence on Education)

       We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a persons knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to device anything more efficient and reliable than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations text what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a persons true ability and aptitude.

 

       As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. It doesnt matter that you werent feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that dont count: the exam goes on. No one can give of his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do. The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of drop-outs: young people who are written off as utter failures before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students?

 

       A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms. Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under duress.

 

       The results on which so much depends are often nothing more than a subjective assessment by some anonymous examiner. Examiners are only human. They get tired and hungry; they make mistakes. Yet they have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time. They work under the same sort of pressure as the candidates. And their word carries weight. After a judges decision you have the right of appeal, but not after an examiners. There must surely be many simpler and more effective ways of assessing a persons true abilities. Is it cynical to suggest that examinations are merely a profitable business for the institutions that run them? This is what it boils down to in the last analysis. The best comment on the system is this illiterate message recently scrawled on a wall: I were a teenage drop-out and now I are a teenage millionaire.

 

 

 

1.       The main idea of this passage is

[A] examinations exert a pernicious influence on education.

[B] examinations are ineffective.

[C] examinations are profitable for institutions.

[D] examinations are a burden on students.

 

2.       The authors attitude toward examinations is

[A]detest.

[B] approval.

[C] critical.

[D] indifferent.

 

3.       The fate of students is decided by

[A] education.

[B] institutions.

[C] examinations.

[D] students themselves.

 

4.       According to the author, the most important of a good education is

[A] to encourage students to read widely.

[B] to train students to think on their own.

[C] to teach students how to tackle exams.

[D] to master his fate.

 

5.       Why does the author mention court?

[A] Give an example.

[B] For comparison.

[C] It shows that teachers evolutions depend on the results of examinations.

[D] It shows the results of court is more effectise.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       pernicious        有害的,恶性的,破坏性的

 

2.       knack              窍门,诀窍

 

3.       embark            乘船,登记

 

4.       write off          勾销,注销。确认某食物已损失或无效

 

5.       syllabus         教学大纲

 

6.       cram               塞入,把某物塞进,突击式学习(尤指应考),以注入方式教人

 

7.       duress             威胁,逼迫

 

8.       stack               堆,垛

 

9.       scrawl             /画(的内容不工整,不仔细)潦草的笔迹,七扭八歪的字

 

10.   script                     讲稿,剧本,脚本,笔试答卷

 

11.   cynical            愤世嫉俗的,自私得为人不齿的

 

12.   boil down        熬浓,浓缩,归纳

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite.

【参考译文】尽管所有那些虔诚的说法说考试能测定你所知道的东西,但其结果常常是适得其反,这是众所周之的常识。

 

2.       As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none.

【结构简析】second to none固定搭配,义:不亚于任何人或事物。

【参考译文】(测)考试作为忧虑的制造者,真是出类拔萃。

 

3.       induce cramming

诱人采用突击式学习方式。Cram尽力塞入,应试突击学习。EX: cram for a chemistry test.为应付化学考试而临时抱佛脚。Cram pupils以填鸭式教学生。

 

4.       Yet you have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time.

【参考译文】他们不得不在限定的时间内,给一大堆匆忙涂写而成的笔试答卷批分。

 

5.       And their word carries weight.

【参考译文】可他们的话/文字(这里指分数)有份量(有影响)。

 

6.       This is what it boils down to in the last analysis.

【参考译文】这就是最终分析所归纳的一切。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       这是一篇类似分类写作的文章。罗列了考试种种恶果。作者首先指出考试难以测定人的真正能力和水平,反而是适得其反。二是考试是忧虑的制造者,因为它决定了人的成败命运。三是考试促使学校进行应试技巧教育,否定了教会人独立思考、扩大视野。四是教师或者说测试人又累又饿,犯错误,还得在限定时间披阅成堆的试卷,他们的压力和考试者一样很大,而他们的话――分数有份量,审判官的裁决,你有权上诉,而他们的裁决――一笔定终身。

 

       最后引用“辍学者成为百万富翁”来点明测试这种形式对教育的坏影响。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 考试对教育具有有害的影响。文章第一段就点明:考试是测试记忆的好方法,是测试在巨大压力下快速工作的技巧的好方法,却测不出一个人的真正能力和水平。第三段集中指出:考试不是促进学生广泛阅读,反而限制其阅读;考试不能使学生追求更多的知识,而是诱导学生进行应付考试的突击式学习。他们降低了教学水平,因为他们剥夺了老师的一切自由。常常以考试结果而不是所教课程来评定老师,是他们不得不以他们所轻视的考试技巧来培训学生。第二段和第四段也涉及其后果。

B.考试无效。这是考试后果的一个方面。C.考试对教育机构有利。这也是一个方面。D.考试对学生是一种负担。

 

2.       C 批评的。第一段中作者明确指出,考试方法依旧,不能测出人的能力和水平。第二段点名,这种无用的考试决定人生的成败。第三段说考试最成功的考试者经常不是最佳的受教育者,他们是在胁迫下最佳获得考试技巧者,而好的教育应能培养人的独立思考。第四段涉及阅卷者又累又饿,常犯错误,不得不在限定时间披阅一大堆匆忙中七扭八歪写出的卷子。最后一句“我过去是一个是来岁的辍学者,现在我是一个年轻的百万富翁”画龙点睛地指出,考试指挥下的教育的失败。这一切都说明作者对考试的批评态度。

A.嫌恶,厌恶。此答案从意义上说是对的。但语法不通,因为这是个东西,而is后要求是名词或形容词。B.赞成。D.漠不关心的。

 

3.       C 考试。答案在第二段,考试是最终忧虑制造者,那是因为许多事情取决于考试:它们是我们社会中成功或失败的标志。你的未来可能全取决于这决定性的一天。

A.教育。B.教育机构。D.学生自己。

 

4.       B 培养学生进行独立思考。第三段第一句话点明:好的教育应该是培养学生自己独立思考。

A.鼓励学生广泛阅读。教学生如何应考。C.教学生如何应考。D.掌握自己命运。

 

5.       B 作对比,答案在最后一段倒数第二句“审判官裁决后,你有权力上诉,而披阅考卷人给分后,学生可没有上诉权”后面又谈及“一想到考试只对进行考试的机构有礼,未免太自私了。这酒是最终分析归纳的东西。”所以作者呼吁,可定还有许多更简便,更有效的评估人真正能力的方法。

A.给出一个例子。C.表示老师是由考试结果评定好坏。这是第三段讲的不分内容,教师他们自己常由考试结果而不是所教课程优劣来评定。所以他们不得不对学生进行应试技巧教育,降低教学水平。D.表明审判官裁决更有效。

 

 

 

Passage Five (Killing in the Name of God     Ugandan Deaths Spotlight Rise of Cults)

       How could faith beget such evil? After hundreds of members of a Ugandan cult, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, died in what first appeared to be a suicidal fire in the village of Kanungu two weeks age, police found 153 bodies buried in a compound used by the cult in Buhunga, 25 miles away. When investigators searched the house of a cult leader in yet another village, they discovered 155 bodies, many buried under the concrete floor of the house. Then scores more were dug up at a cult members home. Some had been poisoned; others, often-young children, strangled. By weeks end, Ugandan police had counted 924 victims including at least 530 who burned to death inside the sealed church exceeding the 1978 Jonestown mass suicide and killings by followers of American cult leader Jim Jones that claimed 913 lives.

 

       Authorities believe two of the cults leaders, Joseph Kibwetere, a 68-year-old former Roman Catholic catechism teacher who started the cult in 1987, and his prophetess, Credonia Mwerinde, by some accounts a former prostitute who claimed to speak for the Virgin Mary, may still be alive and on the run. The pair had predicted the world would end on Dec. 31, 1999. When that didnt happen, followers who demanded the return of their possessions, which they had to surrender on joining the cult, may have been systematically killed.

 

       The Ugandan carnage focuses attention on the proliferation of religious cults in East Africas impoverished rural areas and city slums. According to the institute for the study of American religion, which researches cults and sects, there are now more than 5,000 indigenous churches in Africa, some with apocalyptic or revolutionary leanings. One such group is the Jerusalem Church of Christ in Nairobis Kawangwara slums, led by Mary Snaida-Akatsa, or mommy as she is known to her thousands of followers. She prophesies about the end of the world and accuses some members of being witches. One day the brought a special visitor to church, an Indian Sikh man she claimed was Jesus, and told her followers to repent or pay the consequences.

 

       Most experts say Africas hardships push people to seek hope in religious cults. These groups thrive because of poverty, says Charles Onyango Obbo, editor of the Monitor, an independent newspaper in Uganda, and a close observer of cults. People have no support, and theyre susceptible to anyone who is able to tap into their insecurity. Additionally, they say, AIDS, which has ravaged East Africa, may also breed a fatalism that helps apocalyptic notions take root.

 

       Some Africans turn to cults after rejecting mainstream Christian churches as Western or non-African. Agnes Masitsa, 30, who used to attend a Catholic church before she joined the Jerusalem Church of Christ, says of Catholicism: Its dull.

 

       Catholic icons. Yet, the Ugandan doomsday cult, like many of the sects, drew on features of Roman Catholicism, a strong force in the region. Catholic icons were prominent in its buildings, and some of its leaders were defrocked priests, such as Dominic Kataribabo, 32, who reportedly studied theology in the Los Angeles area in the mid-1980s. He had told neighbors he was digging a pit in his house to install a refrigerator; police have now recovered 81 bodies from under the floor and 74 from a field nearby. Police are unsure whether Kataribabo died in the church fire.

 

       Still, there is the question: How could so many killings have been carried out without drawing attention? Villagers were aware of Kibweteres sect, whose followers communicated mainly through sign language and apparently were apprehensive about violating any of the cults commandments. There were suspicions. Ugandan president Yoweri Mseveni told the BBC that intelligence reports about the dangerous nature of the group had been suppressed by some government officials. On Thursday, police arrested an assistant district commissioner, the Rev. Amooti Mutazindwa, for allegedly holding back a report suggesting the cult posed a security threat.

 

       Now, there are calls for African governments to monitor cults more closely. Says Gilbert Ogutu, a professor of religious studies at the University of Nairobi: When cult leaders lose support, they become dangerous.

 

 

 

1.       Why did so may Ugandans die in faith?

[A] Many of them were killed for asking for the return of their possessions.

[B] They found the cults leaders had cheated them.

[C] They lost faith in cults.

[D] They are willing to die.

 

2.       The main reason of peoples joining the cults is

[A] poverty.

[B] insecurity.

[C] AIDS.

[D] fatalism.

 

3.       What does Mary Snaide Akatsa prophesy?

[A] She prophesies the world will be flooded.

[B] She prophesies the world will be in fire.

[C] She prophesies about the end of the world.

[D] She prophesies he followers should die in faith.

 

4.       Why do some Africans reject Christian Churches?

[A] They feel Christianity is dull.

[B] They reject Christian Churches as Western or non-African.

[C] They are susceptible.

[D] They are dangerous persons.

 

5.       How could so many killing have been carried out without drawing attention?

[A] The cult acted secretly.

[B] The government officials did not see through its dangerous nature.

[C] There were no preventive measures.

[D] People were frightened.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       beget                      产生,引起,招致

 

2.       cult                        祭礼,狂烈的崇拜(者),迷信,邪教

 

3.       compound                     院子,场地

 

4.       strangle                  扼死,闷死

 

5.       carnage                  残杀,大屠杀,成堆的尸体

 

6.       catechism               教理问答

 

7.       prophet                  预言者,先知

 

8.       on the run               在逃

 

9.       proliferation           扩散,繁殖

 

10.   indigenous              本土的,土生土张的

 

11.   apocalypse              (基督教)启事(录)《圣经新约》

 

12.   be susceptible          易受人影响

 

13.   ravage                    蹂躏,劫掠

 

14.   fatalism                  宿命论

 

15.   apocalyptic             预警的

 

16.   icon                       (东正教)圣像

 

17.   doomsday               世界末日

 

18.   Jerusalem               耶路撒冷,喻:天堂

 

19.   Kenya                    肯尼亚

 

20.   Nairobi                  内罗毕,肯尼亚首都

 

21.   mommy                 嬷嬷=mother

 

22.   repent                    忏悔

 

23.   Sikh                       锡克教(信徒)

 

24.   defrock                  免去…圣职的。这里指:免去圣职的牧师

 

25.   sect                        宗教小组

 

26.   pose                       提问

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       the Movement for the restoration of the Ten Commandments of God

【结构简析】Ten commandments 十戒,是圣经中上帝再西奈山上给予摩西(犹太人的古代领袖)十大行为的神圣准则:

 

a)         have no other god.

 

b)        Do not make or warship idols.

 

c)         Do not take the word of the lord in vain.

 

d)        Keep the Sabbath holy.

 

e)         Honor ones father and mother.

 

f)         Do not kill.

 

g)        Do not commit adultery.

 

h)        Do not steal.

 

i)          Do not give false evidence.

 

j)          Do not covet anothers property or wife.

 

这十戒为犹太教、基督教的教条。

 

       【参考译文】这是乌干达回复上帝十戒运动头目以上帝的名义在2000年屠杀了924名信徒。

 

2.       the 1978 Jonestown mass suicide and killings by followers of American cult leader Jim Jones that claimed 913 lives.

这是指美国的一个邪教组织――人民圣殿教。19781119日教徒在教主Jim Jones的蒙骗或胁迫下在圭亚那集体自杀或扼杀(或强制和下Kool-Aid)或遭袭击而死。人数高达913。此后Jones一词意为残忍的人。杀人的地点就成为Jonestown

 

3.       they are susceptible to any one who is able to tap into their insecurity.

【参考译文】他们易受任何人的影响,这些人能利用他们不安的情绪。

 

4.       drew on features of Roman Catholicism.

【参考译文】利用罗马天主教义等特点。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       文章以因果写作方法,先提出各种邪教残害的人数,然后一一点出邪教兴起的原因:人民贫穷、艾滋病之猖獗,为宿命论提供了温床。加上邪教头目种种欺骗手段:如世界末日来临利用一些正教教义或以基督、圣母玛利亚的身份出现控制、麻木信徒,一旦欺骗手段暴露信徒就惨遭杀害。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 许多人由于要归还他们的财产而遭到杀害。答案见第二段倒数第二句,这一对邪教领袖曾预言世界将于19991231日借宿――世界末日来临。结果并没有发生,追随者就要求归还他们在入教时献上的一切,而遭到有计划有步骤地杀害。

B. 他们发现邪教头目欺骗他们。这只是起因之一,如果发现后不吭声也许不会遭劫。C.他们对邪教失去了信任。D. 他们愿意去死。

 

2.       A 贫穷。主要原因就是穷。答案见第四段。许多专家认为非洲之艰苦生活促使人民在邪教中寻找希望。这些邪教群体之兴起就是因为贫穷。人民没有支柱、保障,很容易受影响。任何人都可利用他们不安的情绪。其次艾滋病在东非之猖獗,培育出宿命论观点,从而帮助预示可怕事情即将来临的思想扎根于心灵。

B.不安全。C.艾滋病。D.宿命论。

 

3.       C 她预言世界末日。

A.她预言世界将遭水淹。B.她预言世界将烧光。D.她预言她的追随者将死于信仰。

 

4.       B 他们把基督教会视为西方的或非非洲的而拒之门外。见第五段:有些非洲人在把基督教会视作西方的或非非洲的而拒之门外后皈依邪教。

A.认为基督教非常沉闷单调。C.他们易受影响。D.他们是一伙危险人物。

 

5.       A 邪教行动神秘。例:第一段中描述的好几百乌干达邪教组织成员死于初看好像是自杀性的火焰之中(自焚),在一个场院诱发现了153具尸体,在搜查邪教头目的房子中又发现了156具尸体,许多埋于房子的混凝土地板下面,还有好几十具从邪教成员家中挖出,其中有些人被毒死。其他,特别是孩子都是扼杀(窒息而死)。共计924人,至少有530人烧死在封闭的教堂里。倒数第三段,乌干达世界末日邪教一个头目――免去圣职的牧师,据说80年代中他研究神学,他告诉邻居他在家挖一个地窖放冰箱。现在警察发现地板下81具尸体,附近一场地74具尸体。上述两例都是神秘杀害,至于要归还财产之人更遭神秘杀害了。

B.政府官员没有看出邪教的危险性(原因之一)。C.没有防范措施。D.人民害怕。

 

 

 

Passage Six (Equality of opportunity in the twentieth Century Has Not Destroyed the Class System)

       These days we hear a lot of nonsense about the great classless society. The idea that the twentieth century is the age of the common man has become one of the great clichés of our time. The same old arguments are put forward in evidence. Here are some of them: monarchy as a system of government has been completely discredited. The monarchies that survive have been deprived of all political power. Inherited wealth has been savagely reduced by taxation and, in time, the great fortunes will disappear altogether. In a number of countries the victory has been complete. The people rule; the great millennium has become a political reality. But has it? Close examination doesnt bear out the claim.

 

       It is a fallacy to suppose that all men are equal and that society will be leveled out if you provide everybody with the same educational opportunities. (It is debatable whether you can ever provide everyone with the same educational opportunities, but that is another question.) The fact is that nature dispenses brains and ability with a total disregard for the principle of equality. The old rules of the jungle, survival of the fittest, and might is right are still with us. The spread of education has destroyed the old class system and created a new one. Rewards are based on merit. For aristocracy read meritocracy; in other respects, society remains unaltered: the class system is rigidly maintained.

 

       Genuine ability, animal cunning, skill, the knack of seizing opportunities, all bring material rewards. And what is the first thing people do when they become rich? They use their wealth to secure the best possible opportunities for their children, to give them a good start in life. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. Private schools which offer unfair advantages over state schools are not banned because one of the principles in a democracy is that people should be free to choose how they will educate their children. In this way, the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent: an able child from a wealthy home can succeed far more rapidly than his poorer counterpart. Wealth is also used indiscriminately to further political ends. It would be almost impossible to become the leader of a democracy without massive financial backing. Money is as powerful a weapon as ever it was.

 

       In societies wholly dedicated to the principle of social equality, privileged private education is forbidden. But even here people are rewarded according to their abilities. In fact, so great is the need for skilled workers that the least able may be neglected. Bright children are carefully and expensively trained to become future rulers. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated peasant.

 

 

 

1.       What is the main idea of this passage?

[A] Equality of opportunity in the twentieth century has not destroyed the class system.

[B] Equality means money.

[C] There is no such society as classless society.

[D] Nature cant give you a classless society.

 

2.       According to the author, the same educational opportunities cant get rid of inequality because

[A] the principle survival of the fittest exists.

[B] Nature ignores equality in dispensing brains and ability.

[C] Material rewards are for genuine ability.

[D] People have the freedom how to educate their children.

 

3.       Who can obtain more rapid success

[A] those with wealth.

[B] Those with the best brains.

[C] Those with the best opportunities.

[D] Those who have the ability to catch at opportunities.

 

4.       Why does the author say the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent? Because

[A] money decides everything.

[B] Private schools offer advantages over state schools.

[C] People are free to choose the way of educating their children.

[D] Wealth is used for political ends.

 

5.       According to the author, class divisions refers to

[A] the rich and the poor.

[B] Different opportunities for people.

[C] Oppressor and the oppressed.

[D] Genius and stupidity.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       discredit                 损害,破坏,败坏(某人的名声),不可信

 

2.       monarch                 国王,女皇,君主政体

 

3.       millennium             千年

  the millennium  千僖年

 

4.       bear out                  证实

 

5.       level out                 (升跌之后)呈平稳状态

 

6.       meritocracy            英才管理,英才教育,能人统治

 

7.       knack                     技巧,诀窍

 

8.       perpetuate               使永久,永存或持续

 

9.       indiscriminate         不加鉴别的,不加分析的,任意的

 

10.   boil down              归结为……

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       Close examination doesnt bear out the claim.

【参考译文】深入探索证实此断言不确。(也就是说太平盛世并没有成为政治现实)。

 

2.       might is right

谚语:强权即公理。

 

3.       For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world.

【结构简析】lip-service口惠而实不至。EX: He pays lip-service to feminism but his wife still does all the housework.他口口声声说支持女权主义,但全部家务仍是他妻子的事。

【参考译文】我们口口声声赞扬平等思想,我们在西方世界中并不认为这一思想事错误的。

 

4.       In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated person.

【参考译文】最终,一切政治意识,都归结为一件事:不论你是由封建国王统治还是英才统治,阶级区分依然存在。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       这是一篇对“无阶级社会和人人平等”论点的驳斥文章。作者从四个方面进行论述。1、天赋的才能和智慧与平等原则无关。2、“适者生存,强权即公理”依然存在。3、人获得的报酬是取决于人的才能而不是平等。4、金钱的作用,它不仅可以培育有能力的人,还是政治的后盾。只有金钱加能力是成功的关键。所以所谓平等不存在,更没有无阶级的社会。

 

 

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 二十世纪平等的机遇并没有摧毁阶级。文章一开始就对无阶级社会的论点进行了反驳:有人认为君主整体已完全摧毁,幸存下来的王公贵族已经被剥夺了一切政治权力,继承的财产为税收大幅度的削减,到时候,巨大的财富将消失殆尽,在许多国家中,已全面胜利,人民进行统治,伟大的太平盛世已成为政治显示。作者认为:深入检查证实这一断言不实。第二段提出了即使人人都获同样的受教育的机会,可人的天然智慧和能力与平等原则无关,适者生存,强权即公理依然存在。教育的普及摧毁了老的阶级体制,却创造新的,报酬是机遇才干成就。贵族统治就是英才统治,可在其他方面,社会依然,阶级确实存在。后面两段集中论述了金钱的作用。

B.金钱意味着平等是错误的。C.不存在无阶级社会。内容是对的,但不是本文的主题思想。D.自然界不会赋予你一个无阶级社会。

 

2.       B 自然界在分赋人智慧和能力是不会顾及平等。

A.适者生存的原则存在。根据这一原则无智慧和能力者难以生存于社会。C.物质报偿是根据人的真正能力。D.人们有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。这三项都基于一点――人的智慧和能力。有智慧能力才能生存,才能获报偿,这已经是不平等,即使获同样的受教育的机会,也不可能铲除不平等。

 

3.       A 有钱的人。第三段一开始就点明:真正的能力、动物般机敏狡猾、技能、善抓机会的诀窍,这一切都带来物质报偿。有了钱的人首要作的事情就是给孩子最佳教育机会,而私人学校教育优于公立学校,人们又有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。在这个意义上,英才教育在某种程度上是永存的。一个来自富有家庭的有能力的孩子要比其对立面获得成功要快得多得多。

B.具有很高智慧的人,若没有钱是难以成功的。第三段的最后一句话也点明这一点,金钱同从前一样是强有力的武器。文章最后一段即使在完全遵循社会平等原则的社会里,禁止特权的私人教育,人们也是按能力获报酬。小心翼翼而又耗费巨大地把聪明的孩子培养成未来的统治者。C.具有最佳机遇的人。D.BC的结合。

 

4.       A金钱决定一切。新的英才教育在一定程度上永存。没有钱,上不起私立学校,谈不上机会,更不用说英才教育。有了钱才能为孩子创造机会。

B.私立学校提供的优越性高于公立学校。C.人们有自由选择教育孩子的方式方法。D.财富用于政治目的。第三段最后三句话:“财富也可以不加区别地用于更远的政治目的。没有强大的财政作后盾,成为民主国家的元首几乎是不可能。金钱和过去一样是强有力的武器,这也说明了金钱的力量,决定一切。”

 

5.       A 富人和穷人。纵然作者提及,同样的教育机会也不可能铲除不平等,因为上天赋予人之智慧是不可能考虑平等原则,可是作者也提到适者生存、强权即公理。贵族政治可读成英才教育。这已说明英才指的是贵族的英才。第四段进一步指出有钱的人首先要做的就是给子女一个良好的教育机会。而私立学校的教育质量优于公立学校。有钱人家的有能力的孩子成功机遇就高。财产还可用于政治目的,要成为民主国家的领袖就得有雄厚的财力支持。钱财和过去一样强有力。即使在以社会平等为原则的社会中,私立学校被禁,酬劳还是以人的能力为准,大量需要有技能的工作人员,而差劲的人没有人关注。天才的孩子予以仔细而又及其昂贵的培养以成为未来的统治者。

总之,政治意识归结为同一个东西――阶级划分存在,不论你是为封建帝王统治,还是为受过教育的农民统治,从这里看,作者的class division指的是A项。

B.人们不同的机遇。C.压迫者和被压迫者。D.天才和笨蛋。

 

 

 

Passage Seven (The Most Important of All Human Qualities is a Sense of Humor)

Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe which appears to be utterly devoid of humor, we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury, for unlike any other bodily process, laughter does not seem to serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divide world, laughter is a unifying force. Human beings oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps, but we all share the ability to laugh. And laughter, in turn, depends on that most complex and subtle of all human qualities: a sense of humor Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of Charlie Chaplins early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we come from. As that great commentator on human affairs, Dr. Samuel Johnson, once remarked, Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.

 

       A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tingle to an earth quaking roar, but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop sided view of things.

 

       This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so often on the brink of war; political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such circumstances, cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about war in Gullivers Travels.  The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they cant agree which end to break an egg. We laugh because we meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish.

 

       The sense of humor must be singled out as mans most important quality because it is associated with laughter. And laughter, in turn, is associated with happiness. Courage, determination, initiative these are qualities we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals of life, then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.

 

 

 

1.       The most important of all human qualities is

[A] a sense of humor.

[B] A sense of satire.

[C] A sense of laughter.

[D] A sense of history.

 

2.       The author mentions about Charlie Chaplins early films because

[A] they can amuse people.

[B] Human beings are different from animals.

[C] They show that certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.

[D] They show that people have the same ability to laugh.

 

3.       One of the chief functions of irony and satire is

[A] to show absurdity of actions.

[B] to redress balance.

[C] to take the wind out of politicians.

[D] to show too much grimness in the world.

 

4.       What do we learn from the sentence it is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian regimes?

[A] It can reveal the truth of political events with satire.

[B] It can arouse people to riot.

[C] It shows tragedy and comedy are related.

[D] It can make people laugh.

 

5.        Who is Swift?

[A] A novelist.

[B] A poet.

[C] A dramatist.

[D] A essayist.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       devoid                    没有,缺乏

 

2.       plague                    n.瘟疫,惹人烦恼的人和事v.给……造成麻烦,痛苦,困难

 

3.       faction                   派别

 

4.       comic stereotype     可笑/滑稽的模式

 

5.       commentator           (集注)作者,评论员,解说员

 

6.       tinkle                            n.一连串的丁零声,电话声,v.使发出丁零声

 

7.       fanatic                    狂热者(尤指宗教、政治的狂热)

 

8.       lop-sided                不均匀的

 

9.       hover                            翱翔,盘旋;彷徨

 

10.   somber                   低沉的,暗淡的,严峻的

 

11.   redress                   纠正,补偿

 

12.   pompous                自大的,浮夸的

 

13.   arrogant                 傲慢的

 

14.   proportion                     均衡,匀称,平衡,比例

 

15.   Lilliputian                     微型的,极小的,源自《格列佛游记》中的小人国里的人

 

16.   totalitarian              极权主义的

 

17.   regime                   政体,政权,统治方式或制度

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1  In a divided world, laughter is a unifying force.

【参考译文】在分裂的世界中,笑是一种促成一致(团结)的力量。

 

2  Human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps,

【参考译文】人际关系可能因思想意识派别和政治阵营的不同而受侵扰。

 

3  Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.

【参考译文】某些滑稽的模式具有全球性的效果。

 

4  Charlie Chaplin查理·卓别林1889-1977,英国讽刺滑稽剧及电影演员,导演及制片人。

 

5  At odds with society和社会格格不入。

 

6  Dr. Samuel Johnson撒缪尔·约翰生,1709-1784,英国辞典编撰者及作家。

 

7  A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tinkle to an earth quaking roar.

【参考译文】幽默感表现的方式多种多样,笑也许是银铃般优雅轻笑,也许是震耳欲聋的放声大笑。

 

8  If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously.

【参考译文】如果我们能见到可笑的一面,我们就不会犯这种错误:对自己看得过重(自以为了不起)。

 

9  We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop-sided view of things.

【参考译文】我们会经常提醒自己祸兮福所伏(悲剧离喜剧实际并不遥远),那我们决不会偏执一词地看事物。

 

10  Take the wind out of sbs sails使某人气馁或泄气。

 

11  Swift Jonathan swift乔纳森·思维福特1667-1745,英国作家,生于都柏林,曾获牛津大学硕士,三一学院神学博士学位,1688年到英国,后加入英国国教会。他同情英国统治下的爱尔兰人民,积极参加他们为争取自由和民族独立的斗争。他以政治讽刺文著世,其文笔犀利、讽刺尖锐、文章推理严密,用词简洁、语言朴实清晰,被认为是英语的典范,《格列佛游记》是他的代表作之一。

 

12  We laugh because we are meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too.

【结构简析】mean to do是打算或注定要…,一般用于被动。

【参考译文】我们笑是因为想笑,可是我们也想哭。是指小人国和邻国仅仅为打鸡蛋一类小事而打仗可笑,确实也是可悲。作者结合现实指出是人类悲剧之所在。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       文章以部部深入,一般到具体的写作手法论及笑是人类特有的功能。

 

       形式多种、效果一样。天下人有各种观点、制度、人际关系,对滑稽的东西都会报之以笑――一种一致的力量。

 

       笑基于幽默感,有了它,人们会乐观、愉快、轻松,不偏不倚地对待一切,悲剧中寓以喜剧,幽默感又是人类开启幸福之门的钥匙。

 

       论及的同时作者佐以例子,卓别林的早期电影,《格列佛游记》中的小人国战争等。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 幽默感。文章一开始就提出人类有别于动物是人有笑的功能,世界纷争繁杂、人际关系因意识观点差异而对峙,国家制度不一,但人们都能笑。笑基于人类最复杂而又微妙的品质――幽默感。反过来说没有幽默感的人恐怕难以笑。第二段正式指出:幽默感表现形式多种多样,而笑可由微笑到狂笑种种,但其效果相同,幽默感有助于我们保持正确的价值观。这是政治狂热者所缺乏的特征。如果我们能看见滑稽可笑的一面,我们就不会犯过于看重自己的错误。我们总会记得悲剧离喜剧不愿,因此,我们不会有偏重某一测的观点。第四段画龙点睛的指出幽默是人类最重要的特征,因为它和笑声结合在一起。而笑又是和幸福联系在一起。勇气、决心、创造力特征,我们和其他生命形式共享,而幽默感是人类所独有的。如果幸福是我们生活的伟大目标,那幽默感就是开启幸福的钥匙。

B.讽刺感。这是第三段讲的内容,讽刺的功能,但不是人类最重要的特征。C.笑感。D.历史观点。

 

2.       C 作者提卓别林的电影的目的是证明某些喜剧模式对全世界都有吸引力。

A.它可以取悦任何人。B.人类和动物不同。D.证明人有同样笑的功能。

 

3.       B使各种事情重新相等和均衡。第三段着重讲了这一点。人类在痛苦中挣扎,常处于战争的边缘。政治实现令人绝望,在这种处境中,对某些政治事物的讽刺挖苦和漫画可以使各种心理重新平衡,可使失去均衡感的政客地下高傲头颅;可使我看见许多深邃的事情荒谬可笑。

A.表现行为的荒唐。C.使政治家气馁。D.表现世界上太多的令人沮丧之事。

 

4.       A它可以以讽刺的手法解释政治时间的真相。

B.这可促使人民暴动。C.它表示了悲剧和喜剧相联系。D.它能使人哭。

 

5.       A小说家。

B.诗人。C.戏剧家。D.散文家。

 

 

 

Passage Eight (The Improving Economic Situation In Greece)

       Greece, economically, is in the black. With very little to export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from invisible earnings to pay for its needed, growing imports. From the sending out of things the Greeks, earn only $285 million; from tourism, shipping and the remittances of Greeks abroad, the country takes in an additional #375 million and this washes out the almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.

 

       It has a balanced budget. Although more than one drachma out of four goes for defense, the government ended a recent year with a slight surplus -- $66 million. Greece has a decent reserve of almost a third of a billion dollars in gold and foreign exchange. It has a government not dependent on coalescing incompatible parties to obtain parliamentary majorities.

 

       In thus summarizing a few happy highlights, I dont mean to minimize the vast extent of Greeces problems. It is the poorest country by a wide margin in Free Europe, and poverty is widespread. At best an annual income of $60 to $70 is the lot of many a peasant, and substantial unemployment plagues the countryside, cities, and towns of Greece. There are few natural resources on which to build any substantial industrial base. Some years ago I wrote here:

 

       Greek statesmanship will have to create an atmosphere in which home and foreign savings will willingly seek investment opportunities in the back ward economy of Greece. So far, most American and other foreign attempt have bogged down in the Greek governments red tape and shrewdness about small points.

 

       Great strides have been made. As far back as 1956, expanding tourism seemed a logical way to bring needed foreign currencies and additional jobs to Greece. At that time I talked with the Hilton Hotel people, who had been examining hotel possibilities, and to the Greek government division responsible for this area of the economy. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.

 

       Today most of the incredibly varied, beautiful, historical sights of Greece have new, if in many cases modest, tourist facilities. Tourism itself has jumped from approximately $31 million to over $90 million. There is both a magnificent new Hilton Hotel in Athens and a completely modernized, greatly expanded Grande Bretagne, as well as other first-rate new hotels. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris or Rome without the sky-high prices of traffic-choked streets of either.

 

 

 

1.       The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is

[A] Greek income and expenditures.

[B] The improving economic situation in Greece.

[C] The value of tourism.

[D] Military expenditures.

 

2.       Many peasants earn less than

[A] $60 a week.

[B] $2 a week.

[C] $1 a day.

[D] $10 a month.

 

3.       The Greek Government spends

[A] more than 25%of its budget on military terms.

[B] More than its collects.

[C] A third of a billion dollars in gold.

[D] Less than 25% of its budget on military terms.

 

4.       According to the passage, Greece has

[A] a dictatorship.

[B] a monarchy.

[C] a single majority party.

[D] too much red tape.

 

5.       Greece imports annually goods and materials

[A] totaling almost $700 million.

[B] that balance exports.

[C] that are paid by tourists.

[D] costing $66 million.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       remittance                     汇款(额)

 

2.       wash out                 洗掉,取消、告吹、冲掉、筋疲力尽

 

3.       drachma                 古希腊银币   德拉克马(现代希腊货币单位)

 

4.       lot                         份额

 

5.       incompatible           水火不相容的,不能共存的

 

6.       coalesce                  (政党)联合,愈合,接合

 

7.       highlight                光线最强处,最重要部分,最精彩场面

 

8.       margin                   (成本和售价的)差额,空白,边缘

 

9.       bog down               陷于困境,使停顿

 

10.   red tape                  官样文章,烦琐和拖拉的公务程序

 

11.   shrewdness             清明,机灵

 

12.   deadlock                 僵局,僵持;使陷于僵局

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       Greece, economically is in the black.

【参考译文】希腊经济上说是赢利/富裕的

 

2.       With very little export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from invisible earnings to pay its needed, growing imports.

【参考译文】除了农产品,如烟草、棉花和水果之外,希腊没有什么出口货,但它从“无形的收益”中挣不少,足够致富所需的一切――日益增长的进口货。

 

3.       This washes out almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.

【参考译文】这笔钱冲掉了进口超过出口近4亿美元的差额。

 

4.       So far most American and other foreign attempts have bogged down in the Greek governments red tape and shrewdness about small points.

【参考译文】到目前为止由于希腊政府那种繁琐而又拖拉的公务程序和对小事的精明,大多数美国和其他国家的尝试的工作都陷入困境。

 

5.       They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.

【参考译文】他们绝望地陷于意见和观点完全分歧的僵局之中。

 

6.       And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris and Rome without the sky-high prices of traffic chocked streets of either.

【参考译文】喷气式飞机的发展使雅典和巴黎、罗马一样很容易到达,却没有那两个城市的交通堵塞的接到的高昂代价。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       这是一篇以过去和现在对比的手法,论述了希腊经济,主要是旅游业的发展。过去,希腊以无形资产赢得之利润,来消除赤字,还可稍有节余。但贫穷、事业情况严重,政府办事拖拉、繁琐也影响国外的投资,虽然早在1956年就准备扩展旅游业,但意见分歧。现在,情况大变,就旅游一项年收入由3100万增至9000万美元。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       B 希腊经济形式的改善。文章围绕这一中心而写。文章一开始就提出希腊出口除了农产品之外,没有什么东西,而无形资产如旅游、运输和国外的汇款等可挣得37500万美元。两项加在一起来抵消入超赤字近4亿美元,稍有结余。第三段指出,希腊是自由欧洲最穷的国家,许多农民年收入为6070美元。失业现象席卷城市乡镇,建立工业基地的自然资源极少。政府的繁琐事务程序,关注琐事等情况使美国和其他国家试图展开工作陷于停滞状态。第四段开始指出1956年起开拓旅游业,不过意见还是分歧。第五断提出今天惊人的变化,美丽的历史古城呈现新貌,就旅游一项收入由3100万增至9000万美元。旅馆面貌大变。

A.希腊的收支。C.旅游的价值。D.军事费用。

 

2.       B少于2美元一星期。文章第三段第三句:最佳情况,年收入为6070美元使大多数农民的份额。所以B项最接近年收入。

A.60美元一星期。C.一天一美元。D.一个月10美元。

 

3.       A 百分之25以上用于军事。第二段:虽然四个德拉克马中有一个用于国防,政府最终还稍有结余――6600万美元。

B.比收入的还多。C.十亿金子中的三分之一。D.少于百分之25

 

4.       C单一大党。第二段:希腊的政府不依靠水火不相容的政党之间的合作来取得一会的多数席位,这说明是单一大党。

A.独裁、专政。B.君主政体。D.太多的繁琐程序。

 

5.       A总计几乎在7亿美元左右。第一段中提到希腊出口商品价值28500万美元,而进口超出出口4亿美元。两者相加为6亿25百万美元,相当于几乎在7亿美元左右。

B.和出口平衡。C.由旅游者支付。D.花费6600万美元。

 

 

 

Passage Nine (The Program-Federal Government Helps Minority Business)

       Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960s when the Small Business Administration (SBA) began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance available to minority business enterprises. While this program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to form new businesses, the results were disappointing, since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations, and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15 years after the program was implemented, minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economys total receipts.

 

       Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the minority business sector by moving away from directly aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting large, growth-oriented minority firms through intermediary companies. In this approach, large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable minority businesses by making use of government-sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise Small Businesses that have potential to become future suppliers of customers of the sponsoring company.

 

       MESBICs are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available. Further, since potential markets for the minority businesses already exist through the sponsoring companies, the minority businesses face considerably less risk in terms of location and market fluctuation. Following early financial and operating problems, sponsoring corporations began to capitalize MESBICs far above the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate sufficient income and to sustain the quality of management needed. MESBICs are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises.

 

       Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach investments in minority firms more pragmatically than do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the social responsibility approach and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have produced uneasiness among many minority staff members, who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses should be judged by established business considerations. These staff members believe their point of view is closer to the original philosophy of MESBICs and they are concerned that, unless a more prudent course if followed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA approach.

 

 

 

1.       Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

[A] The use of MESBICs for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SBA approach.

[B] There is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some MESBICs.

[C] After initial problems with management and marketing, minority businesses have begun to expand at a steady rate.

[D] Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several equally successful federal programs on which to rely.

 

2.       According to the passage, the MESBIC approach differ s from the SBA approach in that MESBICs

[A] seek federal contracts to provide market for minority businesses.

[B] Encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses.

[C] Attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector.

[D] Rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses.

 

3.       Which of the following statements about the SBA program can be inferred from the passage?

[A] The maximum term for loans made to recipient businesses was 15 years.

[B] Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance.

[C] The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted.

[D] Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development.

 

4.       The author refers to the financial and operating problems encountered by MESBICs primarily in order to

[A] broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding MESBICs through sponsoring companies.

[B] call attention to the fact that MESBICs must receive adequate funding in order to function effectively.

[C] show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored venture capital in the original MESBICs.

[D] Compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum funding.

 

5.       It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some MESBIC staff member toward the investments preferred by some MESBIC directors can be best described as

[A] disappointing.

[B] Indifferent.

[C] Shocked.

[D] Defensive.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.       implement                                   执行,履行

 

2.       growth-oriented                    增长潜力的,有发展性的

 

3.       intermediary company           中介公司,中间公司

 

4.       venture capital                      风险资本

 

5.       entrepreneur                         企业家,创业者

 

6.       fluctuation                            波动,涨落,起伏

 

7.       pragmatically                        实用地

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       Even 15 years after the program was implemented minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economys total receipts.

【参考译文】甚至在这个计划执行后15年,少数民族工业的收入还不到全国总收入的2%。

 

2.       Recently federal policy makers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the supporting large, growth oriented minority firms through intermediary companies.

【参考译文】最近,联邦决策者采取一项措施,旨在加速少数民族工商业的发展,他们不再直接帮助小型的少数民族企业,而是转向通过中间公司来支持规模较大、有发展潜力的少数民族公司。

 

3.       By making use of government-sponsored venture capital.

利用政府资助的风险资本。

 

4.       The MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority businesses that have potential to become future suppliers or customers of the sponsoring company.

【参考译文】然后再由MESBIC向那些少数民族企业提供资金、进行指导。这些企业是有成为赞助公司的未来供应商或客户的潜力的。

 

5.       MESBIC minority enterprise small business investment company

少数民族小型企业投资公司。

 

6.       MESBICs are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available.

【参考译文】MESBIC的建立基于这种信念:为已建公司提供方便,使它更容易获得相关的管理技术更具体的工作经验以及大笔资金要比简单地给予一般管理经验和小笔资金更能使它们获得机会去建立稳固的商业基础。

 

7.       The latter often still think mainly in terms of the social responsibility approach and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant.

【参考译文】后者――高级经理们――在有大多数情况下,仍然常常从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题,因此,他们似乎更倾向于选择那些比正常投资标准更具风险性,而不太引人注目的项目。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

       文章主要采用因果以及对比的写作方法。先点出SBA计划――联邦政府对少数民族去也的赞助()的失败及其原因。

       为此,联邦决策者改变方法,通过中介公司,建立MESBIC。由它来帮助少数民族企业――使其获得相应的管理技术、具体工作经验和大量资金,甚至潜在的市场――取得了成功。

 

       可内部存在问题,MESBIC的职工和领导者之间的意见分歧,职工的投资观点更切实际,而领导者仍从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题,若不改变,有可能重蹈SBA之覆辙。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

1.       A 运用MESBIC来帮助少数民族企业似乎比原来SBA的方法更具成功的可能性。文章一开始就点名SBA(小型企业管理局)向少数民族企业提供联邦保证贷款,政府资助管理和技术方面的帮助,结果令人失望。组建成的少数民族新企业由于管理上缺乏经验、地点不佳、资金短缺而导致失败的情况很多。其他见难句译注123。总之在MESBIC支持下:为它的潜在市场提供大量资金等,使它们在地点和市场流通方面风险小的多,从而带来足够的收入和保持所需的管理质量。这一切都说明MESBICSBA的成功可能性大。

B.MESBIC中的领导者和职工方面在观点上有着至关重要的分歧。C.经历了早期管理和市场问题后,少数民族企业已开始稳步发展。D.希望组建新公司的少数民族企业家已有好几个成功的联邦计划可依靠。

 

2.       D 依靠打工四向少数民族企业投资。见第二段第二句:大公司利用政府资助的风险资本参与成功而又稳固的少数民族企业的发展。参与的大公司用这笔资金建立了“少数民族小型企业投资公司”(MESBIC

A.寻求为少数民族企业提供市场联邦合同。B.鼓励少数民族企业为其他少数民族企业提供市场。C.试图在少数民族部门保持特定的增长率。

 

3.       C 预期加入SBA项目中的公司的失败率比实际失败率低得多。文内没有直接点出,而是从(见第一题注释)SBA帮助的企业失败率很高――令人失望,从而推断C项结论。

A.给企业贷款最高期限为15年。B.商业贷款对企业来说远笔管理和技术帮助重要。D.鼓励接受贷款企业重新寻找利于企业发展的地区。

 

4.       B 为的是引人注意这一实际情况:MESBIC必须取得足够的资金才能有效地运转。这在第三段最后一句:在经历了早期财政和运行问题后,赞助公司给MESBIC注入的资金远远超过了50万美元的法定最低限额,以获得足够的收入并保持所需的管理质量。MESBIC现在正成为日益重要的少数民族企业的资金来源。这说明没有足够的资金是难以有效运转的。

A.扩大讨论范围以包括通过赞助公司投资MESBIC的合理性。C.表明赞助公司愿意在原来的MESBIC只投资50万政府资助的风险资本。D.对比SBAMESBIC最低投资限额。

 

5.       A 失望。文章最后一段MESBIC的职工――一般是拉美和黑人专业人员在少数民族公司的投资上比MEBSIC的领导者更切实际。这些高级经理从社会责任角度看问题,会选择更具风险性,不太吸引人的项目。观点分歧使许多少数民族职工感到不安,他们认为应以公司的业务爆出来评价少数民族企业家及其企业。者充分说明MEBSIC的职工对领导所青睐的投资项目不满意和失望。

B.漠不关心。C.震惊。D.持保留态度。

 

 

 

        Passage Ten (The Importance of Independent Thinking)

No one can be a great thinker who does not realize that as a thinker it is her first duty to   follow her intellect to whatever conclusions it may lead. Truth gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, than by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think. No that it is solely, of chiefly, to form great thinkers that freedom of thinking is required. One the contrary, it is as much or even more indispensable to enable average human beings to attain the mental stature which they are capable of. There have been and many again be great individual thinkers in a general atmosphere of mental slavery. But there never has been, nor ever will be, in that atmosphere an intellectually active people. Where any of heterodox speculation was for a time suspended, where there is a tacit convention that principles are not to be disputed: where the discussion of the greatest questions which can occupy humanity is considered to be closed, we cannot hope to find that generally high scale of mental activity which has made some periods of history so remarkable. Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up fro9m its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.

 

She who knows only her own side of the case knows little of that. Her reasons may be food, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if she s equally unable to refute the reasons of the opposite side; if she does not so much as know what they are, she has no ground for preferring either opinion. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgment, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world the side to which she feels the most inclination. Nor is it enough that she should heat the arguments of adversaries from her own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations, That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into real contact with her own mind. She must be able to hear them form persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty. Ninety-nine in a hundred of what are called educated persons are in this condition; even of those who can argue fluently for their opinions. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.

 

                                                          

 

1.       The best title for this passage is

 

[A] The Age of Reason            [B] The need for Independent Thinking

 

[C] The Value of Reason           [D] Stirring Peoples Minds

 

2.       According to the author, it is always advisable to

 

[A] have opinions which cannot be refuted.

 

[B] adopt the point of view to which one feels the most inclination.

 

[C] be acquainted with the arguments favoring the point of view with which one disagrees,

 

[D] suspend heterodox speculation in favor of doctrinaire approaches.

 

3.       According to the author, in a great period such as the Renaissance we may expect to find

 

[A] acceptance of truth              [B]   controversy over principles 

 

[C] inordinate enthusiasm            [D]   a dread of heterodox speculation

 

4.       According to the author, the person who holds orthodox beliefs without examination may be described in all of the following ways EXCEPT as

 

[A] enslaved by tradition             [B]   less than fully rational

 

[C] determinded on controversy        [D]   having a closed mind

 

5.       It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements

 

[A] A truly great thinker makes no mistakes.

 

[B] Periods of intellectual achievement are periods of unorthodox reflection,

 

[C] The  refutation of accepted ideas can best be provided by ones own teachers.

 

[D] excessive controversy prevents clear thinking,

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.  stature               高度,境界,状况

 

2.  heterodox            不合乎公认的标准的,异端的,异教的

 

3.  tacit                 心照不宣

 

4.  refute                反驳

 

5.  adversary             对立面,对手,敌人

 

6.  plausible             善于花言巧语的/辞令的,似乎有理的/有可能的

 

7.  doctrine              教义,学说

 

8.  profess               表示,明言,承认,自称,信奉

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.           True gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, then by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think.

 

[参考译文]  真理甚至从一个经过恰当研究和准备进行独立思考的人的错误中获得更多的东西,而从那些只是因为不予思考却持有正确的观点中获得的少(一种经过恰当的研究和准备进行独立思考的人犯的错误,另一种人是不予思考的却持有正确的观点,真理从前者错误中获得的东西比从后者的正确观点中获得的要多)。

 

2.   mental slavery     思想禁锢,精神受奴役状态

 

3.        Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to     kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up from its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.

 

[结构简析]  这是一句以Never否定词开头的倒装句,正常的句序应把never放在句中,形成:the mind of people was never stirred up from its foundations

 

[参考译文]  当辩论比开重大课题,重大到足以燃起/激起人们激/热情的课题时,那么一个民族的思想绝不会从天赋的情感和原始的基础上升华,甚至使最普通智力的人上升到优点庄严的思想家水平上。

 

4.       The rational position for her would be suspension of judgement, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world, the side to which she feels the most inclination.

 

[参考译文]  对她来说理智的立场是停止判断,而且除非她满足于这一点,否则,她不是为权威人物的观点所左右,后者就像世界上芸芸众生一样,倒向她感觉最倾向的一边。

 

5.       That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into teal contact with her own mind.

 

[结构简析]  do justice to 公平对待,适当处理。 Bring……into contact with  使和……接触/联系。

 

[参考译文]   这不是对正确观点评价的方法,也不能使自己的思想真正接触到论点的实质。

 

6.       She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty.

 

[结构简析]   most plausible and persuasive form 很善于辞令和有说服力形式。  possess oneself of  获得,据有,把……占为己有。  them=arguments。 else  否则的话。

 

7.       Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.

 

[结构简析]    throw oneself intoposition   设身处地,使自己处于……位置/地点。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

这是一篇由一般到具体,重要采用正反对比,推理的写作方法的文章,逻辑性强,正反论证,句子结构复杂冗长,分两段给出内容,第一段重点在:伟大的思想家的首要责任是奠定遵循自己智力所得出的结论。由此引起思想家和思想活跃的人民同时代环境的关系。只有思想后月的时期,才有伟大的思想家和活跃的人民,因为他们可以讨论重大主题,而在思想禁锢时期,只能产生个别伟大思想家。第二段具体的论证了独立思考涉及两方面,既如自己一方种种,也得知对手的一方种种(内容,推理,论点),才能真正获得真理。

 

 

 

答案详解

 

.        B 独立思考的必要性。见难句译注1。这里说明进行独立思考的人即使犯错误,真理也能从中获得东西,而那些懒于思考人,即使持有正确的观点,真理也难以获得东西。第一段还点明思想禁锢时期,即不能进行独立思考时期,难以讨论重大议题,产生不了活跃的人民,绝不会出现像辉煌的文艺复兴那种时期(见第二题注)。第二段也是围绕独立思考而写,只是从具体点着眼:人只知自己,不知对方无法获得真理,只有独立思考两方,才能不为权威所左右,不会跟着自己感觉走,最终知道自己的真正主张。

 

A. 理性时代。  C. 驳斥的价值。  D.  激发人民的思想。

 

.        C 熟悉有利于自己不同意/反对观点的论点。这是作者在第二段讲述的重要论点。他认为一个人只知自己一方,推理极好,无人能反驳,却不知对方的推理,也不能够予以反驳的话,他就无权选择两方的任一论点,其理智位置是停止判断。否则她就会(像世界上芸芸众生那样)不是为权威所“引导”,就是跟着感觉(的倾向)走。其二,作者提出:光听自己的老师讲述对立面的论点,以及他们所提出的反驳论点。只是不够的,必须倾听那些人(他们真正相信对立的观点)的论点,并为此积极热情,竭尽全力辩护,才能使自己的思想和独立论点接触,公正的作出公正的判断。

 

A. 具有不能驳斥的观点。  B. 采取个人感觉最倾向的观点。 D. 停止有利于教条主义研究的异端思考。

 

.        B 辩论原则问题。答案在第一段:在思想禁锢的气氛中,过去,现在可能会产生个别的思想家,但绝不会有思想活跃的人民,在那里有一种心照不宣的惯律:原则决不能讨论——认为占据人类心灵的最重大问题的讨论应封闭,我们不能期望看到一般高级的思想活动。这种思想活动曾使历史上某些时期光辉灿烂。而文艺复兴就是思想活动的顶峰时期,必然会讨论原则问题,所以选B

 

A.     接受真理,周经过讨论才能接受真理。 C. 过度的热情。  D. 害怕异端思考。

 

.        C. 在辩论上,坚定不移。这是一道推断题,一般讲:持有未经检验的正统信仰的人不会独立思考,更不会怀疑他所信仰的东西。

 

A.     为传统所奴役。 B. 不怎么理智。 D. 头脑闭塞。这种人必然受传统思想控制,不理智更不愿接受外界新鲜事物。

 

.        B. 在思想方面取得成就的时期就是进行非正统反思的时期。见3题注释。

 

A.  一个真正的思想家不犯错误。 C. 一个人的老师最能提供所接受思想观点的反驳。 D. 过度的辩论会制止清晰的思考。

 

 

 

Passage Eleven (The Affect of Electricity on Cancer)

  Can electricity cause cancer? In a society that literally runs on electric power, the very idea seems preposterous. But for more than a decade, a growing band of scientists and journalists has pointed to studies that seem to link exposure to electromagnetic fields with increased risk of leukemia and other malignancies. The implications are unsettling, to say the least, since everyone comes into contact with such fields, which are generated by everything electrical, from power lines and antennas to personal computers and micro-wave ovens. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimateor the worst kind of paranoia.

 

   Now the alarmists have gained some qualified support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the executive summary of a new scientific review, released in draft form late last week, the EPA has put forward what amounts to the most serious government warning to date. The agency tentatively concludes that scientific evidence suggests a casual link between extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fieldsthose having very longwave-lengthsand leukemia, lymphoma and brain cancer, While the report falls short of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.

 

   The report is no reason to panicor even to lost sleep. If there is a cancer risk, it is a small one. The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House. But now no one can deny that the issue must be taken seriously and that much more research is needed.

 

At the heart of the debate is a simple and well-understood physical phenomenon: When an electric current passes through a wire, tit generates an electromagnetic field that exerts forces on surrounding objects, For many years, scientists dismissed any suggestion that such forces might be harmful, primarily because they are so extraordinarily weak. The ELF magnetic field generated by a video terminal measures only a few milligauss, or about one-hundredth the strength of the earths own magnetic field, The electric fields surrounding a power line can be as high as 10 kilovolts per meter, but the corresponding field induced in human cells will be only about 1 millivolt per meter. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate.

 

How could such minuscule forces pose a health danger? The consensus used to be that they could not, and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. Such ionizing radiations have been clearly linked to increased cancer risks and there are regulations to control emissions.

 

But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. Though there is a body of laboratory work showing that exposure to ELF fields can have biological effects on animal tissues, a mechanism by which those effects could lead to cancerous growths has never been found.

 

The Pentagon is for from persuaded. In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having biased the entire document toward proving a link. Our reviewers are convinced that there is no suggestion that (electromagnetic fields) present in the environment induce or promote cancer, the Air Force concludes. It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report. Then Pentagons concern is understandable. There is hardly a unit of the modern military that does not depend on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment, from huge ground-based radar towers to the defense systems built into every warship and plane.

 

 

 

1.       The main idea of this passage is

 

[A]. studies on the cause of cancer     

 

[B]. controversial view-points in the cause of cancer

 

[C]. the relationship between electricity and cancer.

 

[D]. different ideas about the effect of electricity on caner.

 

2.       The view-point of the EPA is

 

[A]. there is casual link between electricity and cancer.

 

[B]. electricity really affects cancer.

 

[C]. controversial.

 

[D].low frequency electromagnetic field is a possible cause of cancer

 

3.       Why did the Pentagon and Whit House object to the release of the report? Because

 

[A]. it may stir a great deal of debate among the Bush Administration.

 

[B]. every unit of the modern military has depended on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment.

 

[C]. the Pentagons concern was understandable.

 

[D]. they had different arguments.

 

4.       It can be inferred from physical phenomenon

 

[A]. the force of the electromagnetic field is too weak to be harmful.

 

[B]. the force of the electromagnetic field is weaker than the electric field that the cells generate.

 

[C]. electromagnetic field may affect health.

 

[D]. only more powerful radiation can knock electron out of human body.

 

5.       What do you think ordinary citizens may do after reading the different arguments?

 

[A].They are indifferent.          [B]. They are worried very much.

 

[C]. The may exercise prudent avoidance.       [C]. They are shocked.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.  preposterous         反常的,十分荒谬的,乖戾的

 

2.  leukemia            白血病

 

3.  malignancy          恶性肿瘤

 

4.  legitimate           合法的,合理的

 

5.  paranoia            偏执狂,妄想狂。这里指:无根据的担心。

 

6.  lymphoma           淋巴瘤

 

7.  carcinogen           致癌物

 

8.  minuscule            很小的,很不重要

 

9.  consensus            舆论

 

10.  wallop              乱窜,猛冲,冲击力

 

11.  epidemiological       流行病学的

 

12.  blistering            罗嗦的,胡扯的

 

13.  critique             评论,批评

 

14.  imprimatur           出版许可(官方审查后的),批准

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimateor the worst kind of paranoia.

 

[参考译文]  由于这问题的证据还不是结论性的,而且常常是矛盾的,所以就难以断定有关电力对身体的影响的顾虑是合乎情理,还是毫无根据的怀疑。

 

2.  EPA——U.S. Environmental Protection Agency   美国环境保护署

 

3  While the report falls short (缺乏,不够) of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.

 

[参考译文]   虽然报告没有把极低频磁场归类为可能致癌物,但它确实指出通常60赫兹的磁场是“一种虽尚未证实,但可能导致人患癌症的因素。”  

 

 

 

4  The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a                             great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House

 

[参考译文]  证据争议性仍然很大,所以报告草案在布什政府内引起巨大的争辩,而环保署无视无角大楼和白宫的强烈反对,公布了这份报告。

 

5.       This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate.

 

[参考译文]  这远比细胞所产生的电磁场低的多。

 

6.       and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body.

 

[参考译文] 而且几十年来,科学家专注于更为强大的辐射类别,如X光射线,其聚合的冲击力足以把电子从组成人体的分子中撞出来。

 

7.       But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect.

 

[参考译文]  可是流行病学的研究发现,几组资料在数据方面有所关联,却没有证实其因果关系。

 

8.  a body of laboratory work     一批研究成果。

 

9.       In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having biased the entire document toward proving a link.

 

[参考译文]  在长达33页的对环保署文件的十分尖锐的批评中,空军方面的科学家指责,作者歪曲整个文件以证明癌症和电磁场之间的关联。

 

10.   It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report.

 

[参考译文]  令人惊讶的是环保署竟然批准许可这份报告的出笼。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

文章以问答的方式,对比的写作方法,写出了围绕电力是否影响健康——是否致癌因素的两种观点,及其观点的依据。一种是美国环境保护署为代表的:极低频磁场是一种可能但还未被证实的致癌因素,而且无视白宫和五角大楼反对,公布了这份报告。理由是科学证据提出了两者之间的关联偶然性。另一种以空军中科学家为主的观点:电磁场不会诱发或触发癌症,而且以歪曲整个文件来证明两者之关系,批评了环保署。其理由人人皆知。因军队中任一单位都有点——从地面雷达到舰艇飞机防卫系统。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        D 电力对癌症影响的不同观点。文章一开始就提出了“电会致癌吗?”这个问题。十多年来,一大批科学家和新闻界人士都指出:研究结果似乎表示:接触电磁场可能会增加患白血病和其他恶性肿瘤的危险性。所以说到目前为止还难以确定电力对健康的影响究竟是理性的,还是杞人忧天。见难句注释1。第二段公布了环保署的报告,见难句注释3。第三段说明:即使有致癌危险也是极微的。但应予以认真对待,进行更多的研究。而第七段中空军方面的科学家还没有被说服(见难句注释9),明确提出,我们的评论员认为没有迹象说明环境中存在的电力会诱发或促发癌症。

 

A. 对致癌因素的研究。   B. 致癌原因方面有争议的观点,这两项根本部队,和文内电力毫无关系。   C. 电力和癌症的关系,文中涉及的是电力究竟会不会致癌的两种观点,而不是两者之关系。

 

2.        A. 电和致癌有一定难以确定的关系。答案在第二段第三句,环保署目前的结论是据科学证据指出极低频电磁场——具有长波的电磁场——和白血病,淋巴瘤及脑癌之间有着难以确定的联系,见难句注释3

 

A. 电确实致癌,不对。   C. 有争议的。说的不够清楚,争议什么。   D. 低频磁场是一个可能致癌因素。这只是论点的一面。

 

3.        B. 现代军事的任何部门都一直依赖于应用大量应用电子设备。五角大楼和白宫所以反对环保署公布报告之理由就在此。空军方面的专家所以说环保署方面的报告“歪曲了整个文件以证明两者之间的关系”也在此。见难句注释4。所以文内说“角大楼的关注是可以理解的。”

 

A. 报告会在布什政府内引起大规模的辩论,这是结果。   C. 五角大楼的关注是可以理解的,这不是原因。   D. 他们有不同的观点。

 

4.        磁场力太弱不会产生有害作用。答案在第四段第二,三句,当电流通过电缆,产生磁场,对周围物体产生(影响)力。许多年来,科学家把任何有关“这些力可能有害的想法”置于一边(不予考虑),主要是因为它们(所产生的力)非常弱。

 

B. 磁场力比细胞产生的电磁场弱。只是明确指出的事实。   C. 磁场力对人的健康有害。不对。   D. 只有更强的辐射才能把人体中的电子击出来。不对。

 

5.        C. 他们会采取谨慎小心避开电器的途径。因为他们不可能象A项那样漠不关心。这种问题直接影响人的生命。

 

B. 他们非常担忧。   D. 他们感到震惊,这两项都不可能,因为还在争议中,唯一的途径是尽量避开和电器接触。

 

 

 

                Passage Twelve (Religion and Rationality)

   Yet the difference in tome and language must strike us, so soon as it is philosophy that speaks: that change should remind us that even if the function of religion and that of reason coincide, this function is performed in the two cases by very different organs. Religions are many, reason one. Religion consists of conscious ideas, hopes, enthusiasms, and objects of worship; it operates by grace and flourishes by prayer. Reason, on the other hand, is a mere principle or potential order, on which indeed we may come to reflect but which exists in us ideally only, without variation or stress of any kind. We conform or do not conform to it; it does not urge or chide us, not call for any emotions on our part other than those naturally aroused by the various objects which it unfolds in their true nature and proportion. Religion brings some order into life by weighting it with new materials. Reason adds to the natural materials only the perfect order which it introduces into them. Rationality is nothing but a form, an ideal constitution which experience may more or less embody. Religion is a part of experience itself, a mass of sentiments and ideas. The one is an inviolate principle, the other a changing and struggling force. And yet this struggling and changing force of religion seems to direct man toward something eternal. It seems to make for an ultimate harmony within the soul and for an ultimate harmony between the soul and all that the soul depends upon. Religion, in its intent, is a more conscious and direct pursuit of the Life of Reason than is society, science, or art, for these approach and fill out the ideal life tentatively and piecemeal, hardly regarding the foal or caring for the ultimate justification of the instinctive aims. Religion also has an instinctive and blind side and bubbles up in all manner of chance practices and intuitions; soon, however, it feels its way toward the heart of things, and from whatever quarter it may come, veers in the direction of the ultimate.

 

   Nevertheless, we must confess that this religious pursuit of the Life of Reason has been singularly abortive. Those within the pale of each religion may prevail upon themselves, to express satisfaction with its results, thanks to a fond partiality in reading the past and generous draughts of hope for the future; but any one regarding the various religions at once and comparing their achievements with what reason requires, must feel how terrible is the disappointment which they have one and all prepared for mankind. Their chief anxiety has been to offer imaginary remedies for mortal ills, some of which are incurable essentially, while others might have been really cured by well-directed effort. The Greed oracles, for instance, pretended to heal out natural ignorance, which has its appropriate though difficult cure, while the Christian vision of heaven pretended to be an antidote to our natural deaththe inevitable correlate of birth and of a changing and conditioned existence. By methods of this sort little can be done for the real betterment of life. To confuse intelligence and dislocate sentiment by gratuitous fictions is a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness. Nature is soon avenged. An unhealthy exaltation and a one-sided morality have to be followed by regrettable reactions. When these come. The real rewards of life may seem vain to a relaxed vitality, and the very name of virtue may irritate young spirits untrained in and natural excellence. Thus religion too often debauches the morality it comes to sanction and impedes the science it ought to fulfill.

 

   What is the secret of this ineptitude? Why does religion, so near to rationality in its purpose, fall so short of it in its results? The answer is easy; religion pursues rationality through the imagination. When it explains events or assigns causes, it is an imaginative substitute for science. When it gives precepts, insinuates ideals, or remoulds aspiration, it is an imaginative substitute for wisdomI mean for the deliberate and impartial pursuit of all food. The condition and the aims of life are both represented in religion poetically, but this poetry tends to arrogate to itself literal truth and moral authority, neither of which it possesses. Hence the depth and importance of religion becomes intelligible no less than its contradictions and practical disasters. Its object is the same as that of reason, but its method is to proceed by intuition and by unchecked poetical conceits.

 

 

 

1.       As used in the passage, the author would define wisdom as

 

[A]. the pursuit of rationality through imagination.

 

[B]. an unemotional search for the truth.

 

[C]. a purposeful and unbiased quest for what is best.

 

[D]. a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness

 

2.       Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?

 

[A]. Religion seeks the truth through imagination, reason, in its search, utilizes the emotions.

 

[B]. Religion has proved an ineffective tool in solving mans problems.

 

[C]. Science seeks a piece meal solution to mans questions.

 

[D]. The functions of philosophy and reason are the same.

 

3.       According to the author, science differs from religion in that

 

[A]. it is unaware of ultimate goals.              [B]. it is unimaginative.

 

[C]. its findings are exact and final.              [D]. it resembles society and art.

 

4.       The author states that religion differs from rationality in that

 

[A]. it relies on intuition rather than reasoning .

 

[B]. it is not concerned with the ultimate justification of its instinctive aims.

 

[C]. it has disappointed mankind.

 

[D]. it has inspired mankind.

 

5.       According to the author, the pursuit of religion has proved to be

 

[A]. imaginative.                      [B]. a provider of hope for the future.

 

[C]. a highly intellectual activity         [D]. ineffectual.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.  grace                  恩赐,仁慈,感化,感思祷告

 

2.  chide                  责备

 

3.  sentiment               情感

 

4.  inviolate                不受侵犯的,纯洁的

 

5.  intent                  意义,含义

 

6.  piecemeal               一件件,逐渐的,零碎的

 

7.  bubble up               起泡,沸腾,兴奋

 

8.  veer                    改变方向,转向

 

9.  abortive                 夭折的,失败的,中断的,流产的。

 

10.  pale                   范围,界限

 

11.  draught                 要求

 

12.  oracle                  神谕宣誓,预言,圣言

 

13.  antidote                解毒药,矫正方法

 

14.  correlate                相互关系

 

15.  dislocate                使离开原来位置,打乱正常秩序

 

16.  gratuitous               无偿的,没有理由的。

 

17.  debauch                 使失落,放荡

 

18.  sanction                 支持,鼓励,认可

 

19.  impede                  妨碍,制止

 

20.  ineptitude                不恰当,无能,愚蠢

 

21.  insinuate                 暗示

 

22.  remould                  重塑,重铸

 

23.  aspiration                抱负,壮志

 

24.  arrogate                  没来由反把……归于(to

 

25.  literal                    朴实的,字面的

 

26.  intelligible                可以理解的。

 

27.  conceit                   幻想,奇想

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       Yet the difference in tome and language must strike us, so soon as it is philosophy that speaks: that change should remind us that even if the function of religion and that of reason coincide, this function is performed in the two cases by very different organs.

 

[参考译文]  可是音调和语言的差异必然很快的给我们深刻的印象,就象哲学所说的那样:那种差异应提乡我们,即使宗教的功能和理性的功能恰好相符的话,其功能也是通过不同的器官在两种不同的情况下完成的。

 

2.       Reason, on the other hand, is a mere principle or potential order, on which indeed we may come to reflect but which exists in us ideally only, without variation or stress of any kind.

 

[参考译文]  另一方面,理性知识一种原则或者是潜在的秩序,我们确实可以在此基础上存在于我们心中,没有种种变化,或任何压力。

 

3.       We conform or do not conform to it; it does not urge or chide us, not call for any emotions on our part other than those naturally aroused by the various objects which it unfolds in their true nature and proportion.

 

[参考译文]  不论我们是否遵循理性,它不会极力或责备我们,除了以事物的本来面目和比例揭示各种事物而自然而然的激起我们的感情,它并不需要我们付出任何感情。

 

4.       Religion, in its intent, is a more conscious and direct pursuit of the Life of Reason than is society, science, or art, for these approach and fill out the ideal life tentatively and piecemeal, hardly regarding the foal or caring for the ultimate justification of the instinctive aims.

 

[参考译文]  宗教在其意义上,比社会,科学,艺术更自觉,更直接的追求“理性生活”,因为这些东西(社会,科学,艺术)暂时而又零星的接近和填补理想的生活,无视目的,也不管其本能的目标是否最终证明正确。

 

5.  one and all    各个都,全部

 

6.       Those within the pale of each religion may prevail upon themselves, to express satisfaction with its results, thanks to a fond partiality in reading the past and generous draughts of hope for the future; but any one regarding the various religions at once and comparing their achievements with what reason requires, must feel how terrible is the disappointment which they have one and all prepared for mankind.

 

[参考译文]  处于宗教领域范围之内的人民也许会说服自己对其结果表示满意,这要感谢他们在结实过去和对未来希望宽宏要切上的一种偏爱。可是任何迅速关注宗教的人,把其成就和理性所要求的一切做一比较,必然感到这种种宗教为全人类作好的失望是实在太可怕了。

 

7.       To confuse intelligence and dislocate sentiment by gratuitous fictions is a short-sighted way of pursuing happiness.

 

[参考译文]  以无理的幻想混淆智力,弄乱正常的情感是一种短视的追求幸福的方法。

 

8.       Thus religion too often debauches the morality it comes to sanction and impedes the science it ought to fulfill.

 

[参考译文]  因此,宗教常常会使它要支持的道德堕落沦丧,并妨碍它应该执行的科学任务。

 

9.       The condition and the aims of life are both represented in religion poetically, but this poetry tends to arrogate to itself literal truth and moral authority, neither of which it possesses.

 

[参考译文]  生活的目标和条件在宗教中诗一般的呈现,但这种诗意往往把宗教所并不具有的朴实真理和道德威力没有来由的归于宗教。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

这是一篇用对比手法写出宗教和理性之差异并着重描述宗教的文章。有各种中焦,理性只有一个,纵然两者在功能和目的上有不相同之处,但由于宗教以直觉,想象力,情感为主,无视目的,虽比科学,社会或艺术更自觉,更直接追求理性生活,结果却是失败和失望,而理性则相反。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        C.  一种有目的而又不带偏见对最佳事物的探索。答案在最后一段,这种愚蠢的秘密是什么?为什么宗教在目的上那么接近真理,在其结构和结果上,却没有理性的一切?答案很简单:宗教是通过想象来追逐理性,当它解释事件或阐明原因时,以虚构的想象来取代科学,当它训诫,暗示理想或者重塑抱负时,以想象代替智慧——智慧的意思是指有意识而又公正的追求一切好东西。

 

A. 通过想象力追求理性。    B. 不带感情的探询真理。   C. 追求幸福的短视的方法。

 

2.        A.  宗教通过想象力寻求真理,而理性的探索却运用感情。见难句译注3,理性(智)是非感情的。

 

B. 在解决人类问题上的宗教是一种无效的工具。   C. 科学寻求逐步解决对人类的问题。    D. 哲学和理性的功能是一样的。

 

3.        A.  宗教没有意识(不知道)其最终目的的。见难句译注4,说明宗教不管(几乎不关注)其目的,或不关心其本能的目标最终真确与否。

 

B. 宗教没有想象力。   C. 其成果是确切的,最终的。   D. 宗教很象科学和艺术。

 

4.        D.  它激起人类情感。第一段中说“宗教的挣扎与不断变化的力量似乎促使人追求某种永恒的东西,它似乎追求灵魂的最终和谐以及灵魂与灵魂所依赖的一起事物之间的永恒的和谐。”

 

A. 宗教依赖于直觉而不是推理。第一段最后一句:宗教也有本能和盲目的一面,在各种各样的偶然实践和直觉中沸腾。可不久它又向事物内心摸索前进,然而不论从哪个方向来,都转想最终方向(最终多转想这个方向——直觉),文章的最后一句:宗教的目的和理想的目的一样,而其实现目的方法是通过直觉和无限止的诗一般的幻想来进行的。   B. 它不关心其本能的目标最终是否真确。  C. 它使人类很失望。

 

5.        D.  无效。第二段开始就点出:我们得承认宗教追求理性生活一直是很失败(流产了)。

 

A. 有想象力的。    B. 为未来提供希望的。   C. 是一个高度的智力活动。

 

 

 

                  Passage Thirteen (Cryptic Coloring)

   Cryptic coloring is by far the commonest use of color in the struggle for existence. It is employed for the purpose of attack (aggressive resemblance or anticryptic coloring ) as well as of defense (protective resemblance or procryptic coloring ). The fact that the same method concealment, may be used both for attack and defense has been well explained by T.Belt who suggests as an illustration the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations. Cryptic coloring is commonly associated with other aids in the struggle for life. Thus well-concealed mammals and birds, when discovered, will generally endeavor to escape by speed and will often attempt to defend themselves actively. On the other hand, small animals which have no means of active defense, such as large, numbers of insects, frequently depend upon concealment alone. Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey. In the case of insectivorous Vertebrata and their prey such differences exist in an exaggerated form. Cryptic coloring, whether used for defense of attack, may be either general or special. In general resemblance the animal, in consequence of its coloring, produces the same effect as its environment, but the conditions do not require any special adaptation of shape and outline. General resemblance is especially common among the animal inhabiting some uniformly colored expanse of the earths surface, such as an ocean or a desert. In the former, animals of all shapes are frequently protected by their transparent blue color, on the latter, equally diverse forms are defended by their sandy appearance. The effect of a uniform appearance may be produced by a combination of tints in startling contrast. Thus the black and white stripes of the zebra blend together at a little distance, and their proportion is such as exactly to match the pale tint which arid ground possesses when seen by moonlight. Special resemblance is far commoner than general and is the form which is usually met with on the diversified surface of the earth, on the shores, and in shallow water, as well as on the floating masses of algae on the surface of the ocean, such as the Sargasso Sea. In these environments the cryptic coloring of animals is usually aided by special modifications of shape, and by the instinct which leads them to assume particular attitudes. Complete stillness and the assumption of a certain attitude play an essential part in general resemblance on land; but in special resemblance the attitude is often highly specialized, and perhaps more important than any other element in the complex method by which concealment is effected. In special resemblance the combination of coloring, shape, and attitude is such as to produce a more or less exact resemblance to some one of the objects in the environment, such as a leaf of twig, a patch of lichen, a flake of bark. In all cases the resemblance is to some object which is of no interest to the enemy or prey respectively. The animal is not hidden from view by becoming indistinguishable from its background as in the case of general resemblance, but it is mistaken for some well-know object.

 

In seeking the interpretation of these most interesting and elaborate adaptations, attempts have been made along two lines. The first seeks to explain the effect as a result of the direct influence of the environment upon the individual (G.L.L.Buffon), or by the inherited effects of efforts and the use and disuse of parts (J.B.P.Lamarck). The second believes that natural selection produced the result and afterwards maintained it by the survival of the best concealed in each generation. The former suggestion breaks down when the complex nature of numerous special resemblances is appreciated. Thus the arrangement of colors of many kinds into an appropriate pattern requires the cooperation of a suitable shape and the rigidly exact adoption of a certain elaborate attitude. The latter is instinctive and thus depends on the central nervous system. The cryptic effect is due to the exact cooperation of all these factors; and in the present state of science, the only possible hole of an interpretation lies in the theory of natural selection, which can accumulate any and every variation which tends toward survival. A few of the chief types of methods by which concealment is effected may be briefly described. The colors of large numbers of vertebrate animals are darkest on the back and become gradually lighter on the sides, passing into white on the belly. Abbot H. Thayer has suggested that this gradation obliterates the appearance of solidity, which is due to shadow. The color harmony, which is also essential to concealment, is produced because the back is of the same tint as the environment (e. g. earth), bathed in the cold blue-white of the sky, while the belly, being cold blue-white and bathed in shadow and yellow earth reflections produces the same effects. This method of neutralizing shadow for the purpose of concealment by increased lightness of tint was first suggested by E.B.Poulton in the case of a larva and a pupa, but he did not appreciate the great importance of the principle. In an analogous method an animal in front of a background of dark shadow may have part of its body obliterated by the existence of a dark tint, the remainder resembling, e.g., a part of a leaf. This method of rendering invisible any part which would interfere with the resemblance is well know in mimicry.

 

 

 

1.       The black and white stripes of the zebra are most useful form

 

[A]. hunters.                        [B]. nocturnal predators

 

[C]. lions and tigers.                  [C]. insectivorous  Vertrbrata

 

2.       Aggressive resemblance occurs when

 

[A]. a predaceous attitude is assumed.

 

[B]. special resemblance is utilized.

 

[C]. an animal relies on speed.

 

[D]. an animal blends in with its background.

 

3.       Special resemblance differs from general resemblance in that the animal relies on

 

[A]. its ability to frighten its adversary.       [B]. speed.

 

[C]. its ability to assume an attitude.         [D]. mistaken identify

 

4.       The title below that best expresses the ides of this passage is

 

[A]. Cryptic coloration for Protection.         [B]. How Animals Survive.

 

[C]. The uses of Mimicry in Nature.           [D]. Resemblances of Animals.

 

5.       Of the following which is the least common?

 

[A]. protective resemblance.                 [B]. General resemblance.

 

[C]. Aggressive resemblance.                [D]. Special resemblance.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.  cryptic                   隐藏的,保护的

 

          cryptic coloring     保护色,隐藏色

 

2.  predaceous                食肉的,捕食其他动物的。

 

3.  vertebrate                 脊椎动物门

 

4.  tint                       色泽,色彩

 

5.   zebra                    斑马

 

6.   Sargasso                 果本马尾藻

 

7.   twig                     嫩枝

 

8.   lichen                   地衣

 

9.   flake                    一片

 

10.  gradation                等级,层次,分等

 

11.  obliterate                涂抹,擦去,使消失

 

12.  larva                    幼虫,幼体

 

13.  pupa                   

 

14.  mimicry                 模仿,拟态

 

15.  nocturnal                夜间发生的,夜出的

 

16.  insectivorous             食虫的

 

17.  procryptic                有保护色的,保护性的    

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.           the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations.

 

[参考译文]  追捕动物和被追的动物也利用快速的动作。这种快速的运动同样是通过几代更迭,逐渐消除了慢速,而发展到快速顶峰。

 

2.           Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey.

 

[参考译文]  保护性模仿远比侵犯行模仿要普遍得多,这是和下述的情况想配合的:食肉的(形式)动物,按惯律总是比他们捕食的对象要大而且多得多。

 

3.           The effect of a uniform appearance may be produced by a combination of tints in startling contrast.

 

[参考译文]  在惊人的对比中,色泽的综合可能产生外形一致的效果。

 

4.           their proportion is such as exactly to match the pale tint which arid ground possesses when seen by moonlight.

 

[参考译文]  (这里指斑马的黑白条)比例正好和在月光下观看贫瘠土地所具有的苍白色泽相吻合。

 

5.           In these environments the cryptic coloring of animals is usually aided by special modifications of shape, and by the instinct which leads them to assume particular attitudes.

 

[参考译文]  在这些环境中,动物的保护色常常得到特定的形状变化和本能的协作,这种本能会使动物采取特定的姿势。

 

6.           Complete stillness and the assumption of a certain attitude play an essential part in general resemblance on land; but in special resemblance the attitude is often highly specialized

 

[参考译文] 绝对静态和采取一般姿势在陆地的一般模仿中起很大作用,而在专门模仿中,姿势常常是高度专门化的。

 

7.           Thus the arrangement of colors of many kinds into an appropriate pattern requires the cooperation of a suitable shape and the rigidly exact adoption of a certain elaborate attitude.

 

[参考译文]  因此许多类颜色排列成恰当的模式/形式,要求把合适的外形和严格的采用一定的精心设计的姿势相结合。

 

8.           The cryptic effect is due to the exact cooperation of all these factors; and in the present state of science, the only possible hole of an interpretation lies in the theory of natural selection, which can accumulate any and every variation which tends toward survival.

 

[参考译文]  保护效果是由于所以这些因素确切合作而形成。根据目前科学水平,唯一的解释(此种现象)就是自然选择理论,它可以累积要生存的各种变异/变种。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

文章以一般到具体的协作和分类方式写作,第一段点出生物界生存竞争中最常用的一种颜色是保护色,保护色可分为两类:进犯(进攻)型和防卫型。一般是防御性保护色多于进攻型。而两种类型都可归纳为一般性模仿和专门(特定)模仿。居住(栖息)在单一色泽的地方的动物,如海洋或沙漠,常采用模仿性保护色——如透明的绿色,土色等,而特定摸刚的动物则栖息在多样性的地方,如海岸,浅水,海洋表面等。特定模仿还需要有改变形状姿势之协作,使其看起来像客观环境中的某物,某种身份mistaken identify.

 

第二段涉及有关模仿性的解释的探索,结果为二。一种观点是环境直接影响的结果。第二种是自然选择的结果。当人们理解了许多特定模仿的复杂特性时,第一种解释就不能成立了。这说明保护效果是一切因素——合适的外形和某种精心设计的姿势等——合作而成。按现在科学水平来解释,只能归之“自然选择”理论,然后是用具体例子来证实。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        B. 夜间活动的食肉动物。见难句译注4,斑马的黑白相间颜色的比例正好和月光下所见的贫瘠土地的苍白的色泽相吻合。当然能保护斑马夜间免遭这些食肉动物的袭击。

 

A. 捕获者。         C. 狮子和老虎。              D. 食虫的脊椎动物

 

2.        A. 在装成捕食其他动物的姿势时。

 

B. 应该专门模仿。        C. 动物依赖速度。         D. 动物和背景混在一起。

 

3.        D. 搞错/认错了动物(身份)(mistaken identify 认错了人之义)。见第一段最后一句话,它不像一般模仿那样,通过动物和背景难以辨别从而从视觉中隐藏起来,它是被误认为某种著名动物。

 

A. 用以吓走它的对手(敌人)的能力。   B. 速度。     C. 采用某种姿势的能力。

 

4.        C. 自然界模拟的运动。文章一开始就点命保护色迄今为止生存斗争中最常用的一种颜色,常用于进攻和防卫。保护色常和其他措施相配合,首先提到速度,见难句译注1。然后讲到保护色分类,一般(普通)和特殊(专门)模拟/模仿。第二段解释或说明模拟适应性。第一种解释为环境使然/影响。第二种认为是自然界选择之结果。

 

A. 为了保卫的保护色。     B. 动物是如何存活下来。      D. 动物之模仿性。

 

5.        C. 进攻性(侵犯性)模仿。见难句译注2

 

A. 保护色模仿。        B. 一般性模仿。         D. 专项模仿。

 

 

 

                  Passage Fourteen (Pageants)

Pageants are usually conceived on a fairly large scale, often under the auspices of some local or civic authority or at any rate in connection with local groups of some kind. This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.

 

Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy. Research among archives and books in the public library will probably prove very useful and produce some workable ideas which will give the production an especially local flavour. From the first economy will have to be practiced because there are usually a great number of people to dress. Leading characters can be considered individually in the same way as when designing for a play; but the main body of the performers will need to be planned in groups and the massed effect must be always borne in mind.

 

Many pageants take place in daylight in the open air. This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers. Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes. The location needs to be studied and then a decision can be made as to what kinds of colors and textures will harmonize best with the surroundings and conditions and then to carry this out as far as possible on the funds available.

 

If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion. When there is little or no money at all, the garments need to be reduced to the basic necessities. Cloaks and shawls become invaluable, sheets and large bath towels and bath sheets are admirable for draping. Unwanted curtains and bed spreads can be cut to make tunics, robes and skirts. These are particularly valuable if they are of heavy fabrics such as velvet or chenille.

 

Colors should be massed together so that there are contrasting groups of dark and light, this will be found to help the visual result substantially. Crowds of people gathered together in a jumble of colors will be ground to look quite purposeless and will lack dramatic impact.

 

The use of numbers of identical head-dresses, however simply made, are always effective when working with groups. If these are made of cardboard and painted boldly the cost can be almost negligible. Helmets, hats and plumes will all make quite a show even if the costumes are only blandest or sheets cleverly draped. The same can be said of the use of banners, shields and poles with stiff pennants and garlandsanything which will help to have a unifying effect. Any kind of eye-catching device will always go with a flourish and add excitement to the scenes.

 

 

 

1.       The main idea of this passage is

 

[A]. Pageants.                          [B]. Costumes on the stage.

 

[C]. Costumes for pageants.                [D].  How to arrange a pageant.

 

2.       It can be inferred that the most important factor in costume design is

 

[A]. money.         [B]. color.          [C]. harmony         [D]. texture

 

3.       Why will much ingenuity have to be required in costume design?

 

[A]. Because pageants take place in daylight in the open air.

 

[B]. Because different characters require different costumes.

 

[C]. Because the colors and textures must be in harmony with the setting.

 

[D]. Because an allocation of the funds available is usually rather small.

 

4.       Why do most pageants have a historical flavour?

 

[A]. Because most pageants take place for celebration.

 

[B]. Many pageants take place for amusement.

 

[C]. A lot of pageants take place for religion.

 

[D]. Because pageants usually take place for competition.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   conceive                     设想,想象

 

        to be conceived            设想好的,构思好的

 

2.   under the auspices of           在……的主办下

 

3.   meager                      贫乏的,不足的

 

4.   mount                       登上,制作,上演

 

5.   flavour                      风味,风格,情趣

 

6.   archive(s)                    档案(馆)

 

7.   distraction                    使人分心的事

 

8.   ivy                          常春藤

 

9.   mellow                       柔和的

 

10.  recourse (to)                   依赖,求助于 

 

11.  drape                         覆盖,披上

 

12.  invaluable                     无价的,非常贵重的

 

13.  tunic                         (古时)长达膝盖的外衣,穿在盔甲上的战袍

 

14.  chenille                      绳绒绒(织品)

 

15.  jumble                       混乱,搞乱

 

16.  pennant                      细长三角旗

 

17.  garland                      花环,花冠

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       This sometimes means that there is an allocation of funds available for the purpose of mounting the production, though unfortunately this will usually be found to be on the meager side and much ingenuity will have to be used to stretch it so that all performers can be adequately clothed.

 

[结构简析]  复合结构。That是主句的宾语从句,从句后再有从句。

 

[参考译文]  这种情况,有时就表示有一个可用于演出目的资金配额。遗憾的是配额一般都少而不足,就得动用非常之才能细细的使用金额,使所有的演员都能穿上合适的戏装。

 

2.       Most pageants have a historical flavour as they usually come about through the celebration of the anniversary of some event of historic importance, or the life or death of some local worthy.

 

[结构简析]  主从句

 

[参考译文]  大多数露天演出都带有历史情调,因为这些戏一般是通过庆祝某个重大的历史事件,或庆祝当地某个值得纪念的人诞辰或逝世周年而产生的。

 

3.       This is an entirely different problem from designing costumes which are going to be looked at under artificial lighting; for one thing, scenes viewed in the daylight are subject to many more distractions. No longer is everything around cut out by the surrounding darkness, but instead it is very easy to be aware of disturbing movement in the audience of behind the performers.

 

[结构简析]  复合结构:主句this is后有定语从句,which修饰costumes。从句中又套从句。

 

[参考译文]  这和人为灯光下看的设计服装完全不一样。首先,白天看到幕景易于受许多因素影响,不再能用一片漆黑的环境把周围的一切隔开,而是相反,演员后和观众中有点纷乱的动作,很容易看到。

 

4.       Very theatrically conceived clothes do not always look their best when seen in a daylight setting of trees, verdant lawns and old ivy-covered walls; the same goes for costumes being worn in front of the mellow colors of stately homes.

 

[结构简析]  并列句,中用分号隔开。第一句中有when seen 连词+过去分词,实质起从句作用。第二句是主从句。

 

[参考译文]  设计出的非常具有戏剧性效果的服装,在光天化日,有树木,有绿茵茵的草地,又有爬满常春藤的古老围墙的背景下,经常看起来是不起眼:在堂皇的住宅四周一片和色调前,所穿的服装效果同样不太好。

 

5.       If money is available to dress the performers without recourse to their own help in the provision of items, it is best to arrange for all the cutting and pinning together of the costumes to be done by one or two experienced people than to be given out to the groups and individuals for completion.

 

[结构简析]  条件句,主句为逻辑主句,注意中间两个被动不定式。To be done by, than to be given out, 这里的than起连词作用。

 

[参考译文]  如果有钱可以为演员着装而不用求助自己供应种种物件,那么最好把所有的戏装的裁减和缝制交给一,两个有经验人去干,而不是让群体演员和单个演员去完成。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

文章论述露天演出的服装问题,由于露天演出不同于室内,剧院内演出,要从各个方面考虑服装问题,才能获得应有的舞台效果。作者从资金多少,地方色彩,露天,白天,颜色搭配等方面来论述服装。写法多种,有因果,对比,举例等。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        C. 露天演出的服装。第一段末尾已经点明,“一般认为露天演出规模宏大,常常是由某个地方或当局(民政局主办赞助),或总是和某个地方集团有关。这意味着有用于演出目的资金配额,遗憾的是配额一般很少,必须动用非常的才能,细细的使用资金,所有演员才能窗上恰当的服装。”其他各段各有重点,但都是服务于剧装这一中心。

 

A. 露天演出。   B. 舞台剧装(包括剧场)。   D. 如何安排露天演出;涉及面或大或小,不适合。

 

2.        C.  和谐。服装设计中最重要的因素是和谐。这一点在几段中都提到,第二段最后一句“演员的主题必须以群体设计,头脑中必须经常记住群体效果。”第三段最后一句“必须研究演出的地理位置,决出什么样的颜色和织物,能和环境,条件,达到最完美和谐。”第五段专讲颜色搭配,“应当从总体考虑颜色,这样才有亮和暗的群体对比,帮助产生实感的视觉效果,一群穿着杂七杂八颜色服装的演员聚集在一起看起来乱哄哄。缺乏戏剧效果。”这也是和谐之要求。

 

A. 钱。钱要考虑。出前两段外,第三段最后一句,讲完和谐后,也提到“尽可能以能到手的资金加以实现这决定。”第四段中“在钱很少或是没有钱的情况下,服装得降到基本需要”,下面就讲利用被单,浴巾,窗帘做服装,所以钱在服装设计中很重要,但不能列为最重要因素,有钱没有钱都得以服装协调为主。      B. 颜色。

 

D. 织品。同样都的服从和谐这一前提。

 

3.        D. 因为能得到资金的配额都很少。第一段最后一句话,见第一题译注。

 

A. 因为在光天化日下演出。    B. 因为不同演员要求不同服装。     C. 颜色和织物必须和布景谐调。这些只是考虑的因素。见上面译文。

 

4.        A. 因为大多数露天演出都是为纪念庆祝。第二段第一句“露天演出一般都是某个具有历史意义事件,或者当地某个值得纪念的人物的诞辰和逝世周年,所以大多数露天演出都具有历史纪念色彩。”

 

B. 许多露天演出是为了娱乐。     C. 许多露天演出是为了宗教。     D. 因为露天演出一般是参与竞赛。三项都不对。

 

 

 

        Passage Fifteen (The Second Wave of Feminism)

   The statistics Ive cited and the living examples are all too familiar to you. But what may not be so familiar will be the increasing number of women who are looking actively for advancement of for a new job in your offices. This woman may be equipped with professional skills and perhaps valuable experience, She will not be content to be Executive Assistant to Mr. Seldom Seen of the Assistant Vice Presidents Girl Friday, who is the only one who comes in on Saturday.

 

   She is the symbol of what I call the Second Wave of Feminism. She is the modern woman who is determined to be.

 

   Her forerunner was the radical feminist who interpreted her trapped position as a female as oppression by the master class of men. Men, she believed, had created a domestic, servile role for women in order that men could have the career and the opportunity to participate in making the great decisions of society. Thus the radical feminist held that women through history had been oppressed and dehumanized, mainly because man chose to exploit his wife and the mother of his children. Sometimes it was deliberate exploitation and sometimes it was the innocence of never looking beneath the pretensions of life.

 

   The radical feminists found strength in banding together. Coming to recognize each other for the first time, they could explore their own identities, realize their own power, and view the male and his system as the common enemy. The first phases of feminism in the last five years often took on this militant, class-warfare tone. Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Germaine Greer, and many others hammered home their ideas with a persistence that aroused and intrigued many of the brightest and most able women in the country. Consciousness-raising groups allowed women to explore both their identities and their dreamsand the two were often found in direct conflict.

 

What is the stereotyped role of American women? Marriage. A son. Two daughters. Breakfast. Ironing. Lunch. Bowling, maybe a garden club of for the very daring, non-credit courses in ceramics. Perhaps an occasional cocktail party. Dinner. Football or baseball on TV. Each day the same. Never any growth in expectationsunless it is growth because the husband has succeeded. The inevitable question: Is that all there is to life?

 

The rapid growth of many feminist organizations attests to the fact that these radical feminists had touched some vital nerves. The magazine Ms. was born in the year of the death of the magazine Life. But too often the consciousness-raising sessions became ends in themselves. Too often sexism reversed itself and man-hating was encouraged. Many had been with the male chauvinist.

 

It is not difficult, therefore, to detect a trend toward moderation. Consciousness-raising increasingly is regarded as a means to independence and fulfillment, rather than a ceremony of fulfillment itself. Genuine independence can be realized through competence, through finding a career, through the use of education. Remember that for many decades the education of women was not supposed to be useful.

 

 

 

1.        What was the main idea of this passage?

 

[A]. The Second Wave of Feminist.           [B]. Womens Independent Spirits.

 

[C]. The Unity of Women.                  [D]. The Action of Union.

 

2.        What was the authors attitude toward the radical?

 

[A]. He supported it wholeheartedly.           [B]. He opposed it strongly.

 

[C]. He disapproved to some extent.            [D]. He ignored it completely.

 

3.        What does the word militant mean?

 

[A]. Aggressive.      [B]. Ambitions.     [C]. Progressive.     [D]. Independent.

 

4,  What was the radical feminists view point about the male?

 

[A]. Women were exploited by the male.

 

[B]. Women were independent of the male.

 

[C]. Womens lives were deprived by the male.

 

[D]. The male were their common enemy.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   trapped                      被诱入圈套的,陷阱

 

2.   servile                       屈从的,奴隶的,奴性的

 

3.   dehumanized                  使失去人/个性的

 

4.   pretension                    要求,权利,借口

 

5.   look beneath                  看到下面

 

6.   band together                  紧密团结在一起

 

7.   explore                      探索,考察

 

8.   phase                        阶段,方面,形式

 

9.   class-warfare                  阶级斗争

 

10.  hammer home                 硬性灌输

 

              hammer home an idea into sb.    硬向某人灌输某种观念

 

11.  intrigue                      使着迷,密谋,用诡计取得

 

12.  stereotype                    固定不变的,陈规旧习的

 

13.  attest                        证明,证实,表明

 

14.  chauvinist                    沙文主义者,男子至上主义这

 

15.  moderation                   (政治,宗教上)稳健中庸,缓和

 

16.  fulfillment                    臻于完善,发挥潜在能力

 

17.  sexism                       性别歧视(常指其实妇女)

 

18.  be independent of              独立于……之外,不受……控制/支配

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       She will not be content to be Executive Assistant to Mr. Seldom Seen of the Assistant Vice Presidents Girl Friday, who is the only one who comes in on Saturday.

 

这是作者杜撰的名字,含有讽刺内涵。Mr. Seldom Seen 很少见到的先生。说明公司很难见到他。那么做他的助手就是她替他干一切活。星期五姑娘。星期五是《鲁滨逊漂流记》中的一个人物,是鲁滨逊的仆人。这位星期六休假日来上班的姑娘,当然得干主人的一切活。

 

[参考译文]  她不会满意做“很少见”先生的助手,也不愿做助理副主席的星期五姑娘,那位姑娘是唯一的一个星期六来上班的人。

 

2.       Men, she believed, had created a domestic, servile role for women in order that men could have the career and the opportunity to participate in making the great decisions of society.

 

[结构简析]  she believed 形式上插入语,实际 Men 句是它的宾语从句。In order that 义:为的是。目的状语。

 

[参考译文]  她认为男人为妇女创制了一个持家操劳的奴隶角色,为的是男人可以获得事业和机遇参与决定重大的社会抉择。

 

3.       Thus the radical feminist held that women through history had been oppressed and dehumanized, mainly because man chose to exploit his wife and the mother of his children. Sometimes it was deliberate exploitation and sometimes it was the innocence of never looking beneath the pretensions of life.

 

[结构简析]  两句句子。前一句的宾语为主从句,后为并列句。

 

[参考译文]  于是,激进女权主义者认为综观历史,妇女一直是被压迫被奴役,被非人化,主要原因就是因为男人就是想剥削他的妻子,孩子们的母亲。有时是有意的剥削;有时是由于没有透过生活的假象看到问题的实质,是无知所致。

 

4.       Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Germaine Greer, and many others hammered home their ideas with a persistence that aroused and intrigued many of the brightest and most able women in the country.

 

[参考译文]  Betty Friedan Gloria SteinemGermaine Greer,以及其他许多激进女权主义者坚持不懈的强行灌输(推行)他们的思想,幻想并吸引了国内无数最聪容,最能干的妇女。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

文章论述“争取女权运动的妇女”,也可以说是女权运动的第二次浪潮。作者从历史上的女权运动激进分子观点谈起:妇女为男人所奴役,剥削。因为男的想独揽决策社会的大权,到女子觉醒,认识自己和自己的力量,把男人视作她们共同的敌人。最后是目前向缓冲发展的趋势,也是作者观点。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        A. 第二次女权运动的浪潮。在第一段,一般性描述之后(见难句译注1),作者画龙点睛的指明“她就是我所指的第二次女权运动浪潮的象征。她是决心要成为的现代妇女的代表。”以后的文章就是围绕女权运动而写的。见文章大意。

 

B. 妇女的独立精神。这只是女权运动中部分内容。    C. 妇女团结。第三段一开始就提到“激进女权主义者发现了紧密团结在一起的力量。”也是女权运动的部分内容。

 

D. 团结运动。

 

2.        C. 有点不赞成。这在最后两段表现的最为明显:“许多女权运动组织迅速发展证明这些激进争取女权的人触到了某些活跃的神经。(非常活跃)。 Ms 杂志就在《生活》停刊那年诞生。可是唤起觉醒的会议常常成为这些活动的目的。性别歧视(歧视妇女)也常常颠倒过来并且提倡憎恨男人。许多人曾是男权至上主义者。”“因此,察觉向平和中的趋向发展并不难。提高觉悟的做法越来越被认为是独立与成就的方式,而不是庆贺成就本身的仪式。真正的独立是能够通过能力,通过寻找一份事业,通过应用教育加以实现。要记住,几十年来,妇女教育被认为是无用的。”如果是倒数第二段是作者对激进分子有点批评,不满的态度的表现,那么最后一段就是作者的观点:独立是靠塌实工作,提高妇女自身的能力来实现的。

 

A. 他全心全意的拥护。   B. 他强烈反对。不完全如此。    D. 他完全忽视不顾。

 

3.        A. 好斗的。(斗争性强的)。第三段第三句:“在最近5年中女权运动首要方面常常具有这种好斗的阶级斗争调子。”

 

B. 野心的。        C. 进步的。         D. 独立的。

 

4.        D. 男人是她们共同的敌人。第三段:“激进女权运动分子在紧密团结中找到了力量。第一次她们认识了自己,她们可以探索自我,意识到她们的力量,把男人及其制度视为她们共同的敌人。”

 

A. 妇女为男人们所剥削。这在第三段中讲到,见难句译注3。这是妇女观点中具体内容之一。也是为什么说男人及制度是她们共同敌人的原因之一。   B. 妇女不受男人支配。         C. 男人剥夺了女人生活。

 

 

 

Passage Sixteen (Crime in Computer)

   New and bizarre crimes have come into being with the advent of computer technology. Organized crime to has been directly involved; the new technology offers it unlimited opportunities, such as data crimes, theft of services, property-related crimes, industrial sabotage, politically related sabotage, vandalism, crimes against the individual and financially related crimes

 

   Theft of data, or data crime, has attracted the interest of organized criminal syndicates. This is usually the theft or copying of valuable computer grogram. An international market already exists for computerized data, and specialized fences are said to be playing a key role in this rapidly expanding criminal market. Buyers for stolen programs may range from a firms competitors to foreign nations.

 

   A competitor sabotages a companys computer system to destroy or cripple the firms operational ability, thus neutralizing its competitive capability either in the private or the government sector. This computer sabotage may also be tied to an attempt by affluent investors to acquire the victim firm. With the growing reliance by firms on computers for their recordkeeping and daily operations, sabotage of their computers can result in internal havoc, after which the group interested in acquiring the firm can easily buy it at a substantially lower price. Criminal groups could also resort to sabotage if the company is a competitor of a business owned or controlled by organized crime.

 

   Politically motivated sabotage is on the increase; political extremist groups have sprouted on every continent. Sophisticated computer technology arms these groups with awesome powers and opens technologically advanced nations to their attack. Several attempts have already been made to destroy computer facility at an air force base. A university computer facility involved in national defence work suffered more than $2 million in damages as a result of a bombing.

 

   Computer vulnerability has been amply documented. One congressional study concluded that neither government nor private computer systems are adequately protected against sabotage. Organized criminal syndicates have shown their willingness to work with politically motivated groups. Investigators have uncovered evidence of cooperation between criminal groups and foreign governments in narcotics. Criminal groups have taken attempts in assassinating political leaders. Computers are used in hospital life-support system, in laboratories, and in major surgery. Criminals could easily turn these computers into tools of devastation. By sabotaging the computer of a life-support system, criminals could kill an individual as easily as they had used a gun. By manipulating a computer, they could guide awesome tools of terror against large urban centers. Cities and nations could become hostages. Homicide could take a now form. The computer may become the hit man of the twentieth century.

 

   The computer opens vast areas of crime to organized criminal groups, both national and international. It calls on them to pool their resources and increase their cooperative efforts, because many of these crimes are too complex for one group to handle, especially those requiting a vast network of fences. Although criminals have adapted to computer technology, law enforcement has not. Many still think in terms of traditional criminology.

 

 

 

1.       How many kinds of crimes are mentioned in the passage?

 

[A].  7.         [B].  8.            [C].  9.        [D].  10

 

2.       What is the purpose of a competitor to sabotage a companys computer?

 

[A]. His purpose is to destroy or weaken the firms operational ability.

 

[B]. His purpose is to weaken firms competitive capability and get it.

 

[C]. His purpose is to buy the rivals company at a relatively low price.

 

[D]. His purpose is to steal important data.

 

3.       Which of the following can be labeled as a politically motivated sabotage of a computer system?

 

[A]. Sabotage of a university computer.

 

[B]. Sabotage of a hospital computer.

 

[C]. Sabotage of computer at a secret training base.

 

[D]. Sabotage of a factory computer.

 

4.       What does the author mean by Homicide could take a new form?

 

[A]. There is no need to use a gun in killing a person.

 

[B]. Criminals can kill whoever they want by a computer.

 

[C]. The computer can replace any weapons.

 

[D]. The function of a computer is just like a gun.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   bizarre                  奇怪的

 

2.   vandalism               破坏,故意破坏文化,艺术的行为

 

3.   cripple                  使瘫痪,削弱

 

4.   fence                   贼市,脏品买卖处

 

5.   neutralize               使成为无效

 

6.   affluent                 富裕的

 

7.   recordkeeping            记录存贮

 

8.   havoc                  浩劫,大破坏

 

9.   resort to                求助于,借助于

 

10.  motivate                作为……的动机,激发

 

11.  extremist                过激分子,极端主义分子

 

12.  sprout                  萌发迅速发展

 

13.  awesome               令人惊惧的,引起敬畏的

 

14.  vulnerability             易受攻击,脆弱

 

15.  devastation              劫持,破坏

 

16.  hospital life-support system 医院的生命维持系统

 

17.  hit man                 职业凶手(杀手)

 

18.  pool                   集中(资金)合办,入股

 

19.  criminology             犯罪学,刑事学

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.        Organized crime to has been directly involved; the new technology offers it unlimited opportunities, such as data crimes, theft of services, property-related crimes, industrial sabotage, politically related sabotage, vandalism, crimes against the individual and financially related crimes

 

[结构简析] 句子很长,都是简单句,中间有分号隔开,后面是举例。

 

[参考译文] 有组织犯罪团伙也直接参与:计算机新技术较为犯罪提供了无限的机会,如数据信息犯罪,偷窃服务项目,跟财产有关的犯罪,工业破坏,跟政治有关的破坏,破坏文化艺术,对个人和财经方面的罪行等等。

 

2.        An international market already exists for computerized data, and specialized fences are said to be playing a key role in this rapidly expanding criminal market.

 

[结构简析] 并列句,and 作对比连接词用。

 

[参考译文] 一个计算机信息的国际市场已经存在,而专门从事脏品交易的市场据说在迅速扩展的犯罪市场中起着关键的作用。

 

3.        A competitor sabotages a companys computer system to destroy or cripple the firms operational ability, thus neutralizing its competitive capability either in the private or the government sector.

 

[结构简析] 主谓宾补结构,后跟thus+从句表示结果。

 

[参考译文] 竞争对手破坏一个公司的计算机系统为的是摧毁或削弱公司的操作运行能力,从而使其丧失在私人或政府部门中的竞争力。

 

4.        The computer opens vast areas of crime to organized criminal groups, both national and international. It calls on them to pool their resources and increase their cooperative efforts, because many of these crimes are too complex for one group to handle, especially those requiting a vast network of fences.

 

[结构简析] 两句话。前一句为主谓宾,后一句为主从句,从句内采用tooto 句型,后跟分词独立结构进一步说明。

 

[参考译文] 计算机为国内和国际有组织犯罪集团开辟了犯罪的广泛领域。它要求它们集中资源,提高通力协作力量,因为许多犯罪太复杂,一个集团难以驾驭,特别是那些需要巨大的脏品交易时常网络的罪行。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

文章介绍“计算机犯罪”,采用分类写作手法,先列出种种计算机犯罪项,下面逐一说明。文本只选四种犯罪——信息数据偷窃或信息(数据)犯罪,产业破坏,政治破坏,对个人生命破坏。分四段叙述,每段为一种罪行,最后是对比罪犯势力越来越有组织,势力请大,而司法部门却没有准备好。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        B. 8种,具体罪行。见难句译注1。

 

2.        B. 他的目的是削弱公司竞争力进而得到它。答案见难句译注2及第二段第二句起:“计算机破坏也可以和富裕的投资者欲得到对手的公司的企图相连。随着公司对计算机记录存储的信赖性加强,破坏他们的计算机可以造成内部大破坏。之后,对取得这个公司感性趣的集团很容易在级低价格上买进。”

 

A. 削弱公司运转能力。   C. 在相当低的价格上买进对手的公司。这两个选项都只是破坏目的的一个方面。  D. 偷窃重要资料,文内没有讲。

 

3.        C 破坏秘密训练基础。这可以标以政治目的的破坏计算机。

 

A. 大学   B. 医院    D. 工厂。 这三个地方都难以和政治直接相连,第三段讲的大学是“参与国防保卫工作的大学计算机措施”,和一般大学不一样。只有秘密训练的基地和真正相连的可能性最大,所以选C.

 

4.        B. 犯罪可以通过计算机任意杀人。答案在第五段:“犯罪集团曾采取步骤暗杀政治领袖。医院的生命维护系统,实验室,大型外科手术中都用计算机。罪犯们很容易把这些计算机转变成破坏的工具。通过破坏生命维护系统计算机,罪犯们就像用枪一样很容易杀死人。通过控制计算机,他们可以指导这可怖的工具攻击大城市中心。城市和国家都可以成为人质。谋杀具有新的形式,计算机可能成为21世纪的事业杀手。”

 

A. 杀人不需要用枪。这话太笼统,不用枪,用什么。用毒药,用刀?  C. 计算机可以取代任何武器。      D. 计算机的功能就像枪,错误的。

 

 

 

           Passage Seventeen (A Strong Stock Market)

   The increase in the margin rate from 50% to 70% was not an attempt to stem any rampant speculation on the part of the publicactually the market seemed technically quite strong, with public participation essentially dignifiedbut rather an attempt by the Federal Reserve Board to preserve the sound underpinnings that existed in the market. Naturally, such a move had a momentarily chilling effect upon prices but if the FRB had been preoccupied with undue speculation, the increase might have been to the 80% or even 90% level. Such an increases in the margin rate is a confirmation of a strong stock market and since 19,such increases have resulted in interim market highs over twelve months later. Obviously, there could be no guarantee that this would once again be the case, but if history is any guidelineand if business and corporate earnings were to continue on the same coursecontinued optimism over the outlook for the stock market would seem more prudent than pessimism.

 

   The margin increase underscored the good rise that stocks had enjoyed for the previous yearand the fact that a 50% rate was maintained as long as it was pointed up the fact that the rise was mainly conservative in that it was concentrated in the blue chips for the most part. In past Investment Letters we have voiced the thought that speciality stocks could outperform the general market from this point. We continue to believe that this could be the case. For example, steel stocks tend to sell at certain fixed price/earnings ratios. Below a certain ratio they are considered good valueabove a certain ratio, overpriced. If a company produces a unique product it is far more difficult for market analysis to place a numerical ratio upon the companys earnings. We have also contended in the past Letters that the stock market reflects mass psychology as well as the business outlook. When investorsboth the public and the institutionsare nervous and pessimistic they definitely hesitate to buy stocks: they seek low price/earnings multiples and high yields. These same investorswhen they are in an optimistic frame of mindbecome for less preoccupied with yields and more wiling to pay a premium(high p/e multiples) for accelerated growth. If the publics attitude towards the auto industry is any measure, then this period seems to have been one of optimism.

 

 

 

1.       The title that best expresses the ideas of this passage is

 

[A]. A Time to Sell Stock.                 [B]. A Strong Stock Market

 

[C]. Raising the Margin Rate               [C]. Price/earnings Ratio in Steel

 

2.       When investors are pessimistic what do they do?

 

[A]. They look to the FRB for help.          [B]. They buy steel

 

[C]. They buy automobile stocks.            [D]. They look for high yields.

 

3.       Why does the writer believe that speciality stocks could outperform the general market?

 

[A]. Because analysis have difficulty in deciding upon a fixed price/earnings ratio.

 

[B]. Because the activity had been limited to blue chips.

 

[C]. Because the rise was conservative.

 

[D]. Because of the FRB action.

 

4.       When investors are optimistic, what do they do?

 

[A]. They look for accelerated growth.      [B]. They buy speciality stocks.

 

[C]. They look for high yields.            [C]. They are more prudent.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   margin rate                 保证金率,边际比率

 

2.   rampant                    无约束力,猖獗的,蔓延的

 

3.   stem                      遏制

 

4.   stem from                  滋长,源自

 

5.   underpin                   加强……基础,支持

 

6.   underpinning                支持物,基础(建筑物下的)

 

7.   preoccupy                  先占,使专心于,吸引住

 

8.   undue                     过分的,非法的,不适当的

 

9.   interim                    间歇;暂时的,间歇的

 

10.  guideline                  方针,指导路线

 

11.  underscore                 在……下面划线,强调

 

12.  point up                   加强,强调

 

13.  bluechip                   兰筹股票

 

14.  blue-chip                  兰筹的

 

15.  outperform                在使用上胜过

 

16.  overprice                  将……标价过高

 

17.  numerical ratio             数率,数字比率

 

18.  earnings                  收益,利润,收入

 

19.  contend                   竞争,坚决主张,争论

 

20.  premium                  佣金,酬金

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       The increase in the margin rate from 50% to 70% was not an attempt to stem any rampant speculation on the part of the publicactually the market seemed technically quite strong, with public participation essentially dignifiedbut rather an attempt by the Federal Reserve Board to preserve the sound underpinnings that existed in the market.

 

[结构简析] notbut句型,两个破折号中间是插入成分;中插入一个带with+N+participle 短语

 

[参考译文] 保证金率从50%增长到70%,并不是想要遏制群众方面猖獗的投机,而是联邦储备委员会想要保持现存于股市强劲基础——事实上股市由于群众非常庄严的参与——在技术上看起来相当强劲。

 

2.       Obviously, there could be no guarantee that this would once again be the case, but if history is any guidelineand if business and corporate earnings were to continue on the same coursecontinued optimism over the outlook for the stock market would seem more prudent than pessimism.

 

[结构简析] 复合句。中间有插入语if clause, 进一步说明条件。

 

[参考译文] 显然,不可能保证这种情况再次出现(情况再是这样)。可是,如果历史具有指导方针的话——如果商业和公司的利润仍然保持在同样轨道上——那么对股市前景乐观似乎要比悲观更精确些。

 

3.       The margin increase underscored the good rise that stocks had enjoyed for the previous yearand the fact that a 50% rate was maintained as long as it was pointed up the fact that the rise was mainly conservative in that it was concentrated in the blue chips for the most part.

 

[结构简析] 这句句子内有四个that clause:第一个thatgood rise的定语从句。第二个和第三个that都是the fact that句型。但第二个the fact that中,as long as it was, 指头一年,pointed up是谓语。第四个是in that连词,义:因为。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

   文章论述“强劲证券市场”的种种情况。首先是联邦储备委员会为保持强股市基础要求保证金率增长。这种增长过去,现在,将来都能巩固强市。其次由于绝大部分集中在兰筹股上,使股市看好上升趋于保守,引出行业股比普通股吃香。最后是投资者心情和股市强弱有关。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        B. 强劲证券市场(强市)。见难句译注1和第一段第三句:“那种保证金率的增长有力的巩固了强劲证券市场。从19……年起,这种增长导致一年来股市屡创新高。

 

A. 买出股票的时候。   C. 提高保证金率。      D. 钢的市盈率。这三项都不对,它们只是文中涉及的方面。

 

2.        D. 他寻找高业绩(即公司的产量或投资收益)。见文章倒数第三句:“当投资者——公众和团体机构——紧张而又悲观时,他们肯定在买进股票上举棋不定;他们寻求低价格/利润倍数和高额利润。

 

A. 他们寻求联邦储备委员会的帮助。  B. 他们买进钢材。   C. 他们买进汽车股票。

 

3.        A.  因为在决定定价/利润比上难以分析。见第二段第二句:“在过去的投资保证上我们一直表达了这样的思想:行业股票在使用上可能超过普通股。我们依然相信情况可能就是这样。举例说:钢股往往在一定价格/利润比上抛出。低于一定比率,可认为股是好价值,而高于一定比率就是超价。如果一个公司就生产独一无二的产品,那市场分析就很难对公司所得定出数比。“

 

B. 因为股市活动受兰筹股所限。    C. 因为行情上升保守。这两项见难句译注3  

 

D. 由于联邦储备基金会的行动。

 

4.        A. 他们寻求加速的增长。见文章倒数第二句:“同样是这些股民,当投资者(对股市前景)持乐观态度时,他们不太关注(公司的)业绩(产值)而愿意以高价来购买具有高成长性的股票。”

 

 

 

                   Passage Eighteen (The Military Is In)

   Things have really changed. Not only is the military standing tall again, it is staging a remarkable comeback in the quantity and quality of the recruits it is attracting. Recruiters, once denounced by antiwar students as baby killers and barred from campuses, are welcomed ever at elite universities. ROTC (Reserve Officers Training Corps) programs, that faltered during the Viet Nam era, when protesters were fire bombing their headquarters, are flourishing again. The military academies are enjoying a steady increase in applications.

 

   Certainly, the depressed economy has increased the allure of the jobs, technical training and generous student loans offered by the military. Students know that if they go in and become, say, nuclear weapons specialists, they can come out and demand a salary of $60,000 a year. Military salaries, while not always competitive with those paid for comparable jobs in the private sector, are more than respectable, especially considering the wide array of benefits that are available: free medical service, room and board, and PX (Post Exchange) privileges. Monthly pay for a recruit is  $574; for a sergeant with four years services it is $906; for a major with ten years service it is $2,305. The services slick $175 million-a-year advertising campaign promising adventure and fulfillment has helped win over the TV generation. Kids are walking down the school hallways chanting Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, just like in the commercials. And many military officials feel that the key difference is the enhanced patriotism among the nations youth. There is a return to the view that the military is an honorable profession. The days of a judge telling a miscreant to join the Army or go to jail are over. Recruiting for all four services combined is running at 101%of authorized goals. And the retention rate is now so high, that the services are refusing some re-enlistment applications and reducing annual recruiting target.

 

The military academics are also enjoying halcyon years, attracting more and better-qualified students. Compared to private colleges, where tuition and expenses have been climbing sharply, the service schools are a real bargain: not only is tuition free, but recruits get allowances of up to $500 a mouth. It is reported 12,300 applicants are for the 1,450 positions in this years freshman class. Military academies are now just as selective as any of the best universities in the country.

 

Nationwide, ROTC enrollment exceeds 105,000,a 64% increase over the 1974 figure. In the mid 70s, the ROTC students refused to wear their uniforms on campus because they suffered all sorts of ridicule, if they did. Now if they wear them to class no one looks at them twice. To them, Viet Nam is ancient history, something the old folks talk about.

 

 

 

1.       What is the main idea of this passage?

 

[A]. The Military is in                 [B]. The Military is up

 

[C]. The Military is down              [D]. The Military is on

 

2.       What was the attitude of the students in 1970s towards the military?

 

[A]. Approval.     [B]. Indifferent.      [C]. Distaste.     [D]. Scolding.

 

3.       The phrase come out is closest in meaning to

 

[A]. become  visible.               [B]. begin to grow.

 

[C]. be made public.                [D]. gain a certain position.

 

4.       Which one of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason to attract students.

 

[A]. Free tuition.                     [B]. Spacious room.

 

[C]. Considerate allowance.             [D]. Technical training.

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   stage a comeback             再度走红,卷土重来

 

2.   standing tall                 站得高

 

3.   babykiller                   杀婴犯人

 

4.   denounce                   谴责

 

5.   elite                       杰出的,名牌的

 

6.   ROTC=Reserve Offices Training Cope               ()后备军官训练队

 

7.   falter                       动摇不定,踌躇不前

 

8.   flourish                     繁荣兴旺

 

9.   allure                       诱惑

 

10.  come out                    进入社交界,扬名

 

11.  the wide array                一大批,一大半

 

12.  PX=Post Exchange            陆军消费合作社

 

13.  sergeant                     中士

 

14.  major                       少校

 

15.  slick                        聪明的,非常好的,吸引人的

 

16.  hallway                     门厅,过道

 

17.  chant                       单调重复的说话(唱歌)

 

18.  miscreant                   无赖,恶棍

 

19.  retention rate                 继续服役率,服役期满不退役的比例

 

20.  real bargain                  好买卖,十分划算

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       The services slick $175 million-a-year advertising campaign promising adventure and fulfillment has helped win over the TV generation.

 

[结构简析]  句子的主语是campaign. 这里指大规模的广告(advertising campaign)。Promising 修饰 campaign

 

2.       The days of a judge telling a miscreant to join the Army or go to jail are over.

 

[参考译文]  由法官判一名无赖不去当兵就得坐牢的日子过去了。

 

3.       And the retention rate is now so high, that the services are refusing some re-enlistment applications and reducing annual recruiting target.

 

[结构简析]  so that 句型。

 

[参考译文]  超役留队率现在很高,所以各个军种都要拒绝一些再入伍申请,并降低年度招兵指标。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

这是论述军队在美国地位提高的文章,主要采用因果写法,中插对比。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        A. 军队又吃香了。To be in 有“流行,时髦”之义。全篇文章围绕这一点而写。文章一开头就点名宗旨“事情真的变了,军队形象不仅高大,招收新兵的质量和数量明显得到恢复。”第二段开始:“可以肯定,经济萧条使得军队提供就业,技术训练和对学生慷慨贷款提高了诱惑力……。”第二段倒数第七句“许多军官感到关键性的变化是这个国家青年中的爱国心增强,当兵是一个荣誉职业的看法又恢复了。”都表示吃香。

 

B. to be up 有“完了,完毕,上涨”等义。    C. to be down 有“消沉,落魄,下降”等义。        D. to be on 有“上演,开着”等义。这里都讲不通。

 

2.        C. 厌恶。答案在第一段第二句“招兵人员曾一度被反战学生谴责为‘杀婴犯’而拒之校园之外,现在甚至名牌大学都欢迎。后备军官训练队计划在越战时期曾动摇不定,抗议的人向部队投掷燃烧弹,如今又兴旺起来。”最后一段第二句“70年代中期,后备军官训练队学生不愿在校内穿制服,因为穿了就遭到各种嘲笑。”这些都说明70年代,学生对军队的态度是“厌恶”。所以

 

A. 赞成,        B. 漠不关心,          D. 漫骂,都不对。

 

3.        获得地位。To come out to gain certain position 获得(名次,地位)之义,也有appear, to be seen (出现,看得见)之义。这里的上下文,只能是D. 第二段第二句“学生们知道,要是参军,当上譬如核武器专家,他们就能扬名并可要求6万美元年薪。”

 

A. 看得见,       B. 开始成长,        C. 公开。

 

4.        B. 宽敞的房间。

 

A. 免学费。       C. 相当高的津贴。     D. 技术培训,都提到过。第二段开始“可以肯定,经济萧条使得军队提供就业,技术训练以及对学生慷慨贷款等的诱惑力增大。”第三句“军队薪金尽管比不是私人公司中类似工作的工资,但已经很可观了,尤其考虑到军队里有一系列的福利待遇,如免费医疗,膳宿,军人消费合作社特惠等。”第三段“军事院校招收的学生数量多了,质量好,年头也就好过。私立大学里,学费和各类费用一直急剧上升,相比之下,上军事院校确实便宜,不仅学费全面,新生每月还可拿5百美元的补贴。

 

 

 

          Passage Nineteen (Creative Process of Works)

The great question that this paper will, but feebly, attempt to answer is , what is the creative process?

 

Though much theory has accumulated, little is really known about the power that lies at the bottom of poetic creation. It is true that great poets and artists produce beauty by employing all the powers of personality and by fusing emotions, reason, and intuitions. But what is the magical synthesis that joins and arranges these complex parts into poetic unity?

 

John L.Lowes, in his justly famous The Road to Xanadu, developed one of the earliest and still generally acceptable answers to this tantalizing question. Imaginative creation, he concludes, is a complex process in which the conscious and unconscious minds jointly operate. There isthe deep well with its chaos of fortuitously blending images; but there is likewise the Vision which sees shining in and through the chaos of the potential lines of Form, and with the Vision, the controlling Will. Which gives to that potential beauty actuality.

 

The Deep Well is the unconscious mind that is peopled with the facts, ideas, feelings of the conscious activity. The imaginative vision, an unconscious activity, shines through the land of chaos, of lights and shadows, silently seeking pattern and form. Finally, the conscious mind again, through Will, captures and embodies the idea in the final work of art. In this way is unity born out of chaos.

 

Though there can be no absolute certainty, there is general agreement that the periods in the development of a creative work parallel, to some extent, Lowes theory of Well, Vision, Form, and Will. There are at least three stages in the creative process: preparation, inspiration, work.

 

In a sense, the period of preparation is all of the writers life. It is the Deep Well. It is the Deep Well. It is especially a period of concentration which gives the unconscious mind an opportunity to communicate with the conscious mind. When remembrance of things past reach the conscious level of the writers mind, he is ready to go on with the process. Part of this preparation involves learning a mediumlearning a language, learning how to write, learning literary forms. It is important to mot here that form cannot be imposed upon the idea. Evidence, though sparse, shows that the idea gives birth to the form that can best convey it. It is the Vision, according to Lowes, which sees shining in and through the chaws of the potential lines of from

 

 

 

1.       When remembrance of things past reach the conscious level, the post has reached the stage called

 

[A]. Well.      [B]. Vision.       [C]. Form.        [D]. Will.

 

2.       Which of the following statements is TRUE?

 

[A]. The form determines the subject matter.

 

[B]. The idea determines the form.

 

[C]. Vision makes beauty an actuality.

 

[D]. A writer is unconscious when he prepares his work.

 

3.       The word fortuitously in the third paragraph means

 

[A]. accidentally.        [B]. luckily.         [C]. thoroughly.         [D]. potentially.

 

4.       The remembrance of things past is carried on in the

 

[A]. Deep Well.                     [B]. Vision.

 

[C]. Chaotic lights and shadows.        [D]. Conscious mind.

 

Vocabulary

 

1.   fuse                      融化,结合

 

2.   intuition                   直觉

 

3.   Xanadu                  是一个非常美的,田园诗般的地方。美国诗人Sanul T Coleridge还根据这地方写了一首诗,“Kubla Khan 忽必烈汗(即元世祖)

 

4.   John  L. Lowes            1876——1945年美国学者,批评家及教师

 

5.   tantalizing                 引起好奇心的,可望不可及的,逗人得

 

6.   fortuitous                  偶然的,幸运的

 

7.   parallel                   相应于

 

8.   sparse                    稀少,稀疏

 

9.   synthesis                  综合,综合法

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.        by employing all the powers of personality and by fusing emotions, reason, and intuitions.

 

[参考译文] 运用个人(品格)的全部力量,把情感,理智和直觉融会贯通结合在一起。

 

2.        still generally acceptable answers to this tantalizing question.

 

[参考译文] 现在仍然是众所接受对这些可望不可及问题的答案。

 

3.        There isthe deep well with its chaos of fortuitously blending images; but there is likewise the Vision which sees shining in and through the chaos of the potential lines of Form, and with the Vision, the controlling Will. Which gives to that potential beauty actuality.

 

[结构简析] 注意介词短语和定从。With its chaos, 是修饰deep well. Which sees shinning 定语从句修饰Vision.  And 后的with the vision, 却是状语。Which gives 又是定从,修饰Will.

 

[参考译文] 有……那充满了混乱的偶然交织在一起的形象的深静;但同样也有那洞察力,看到在混乱中熠熠生辉的潜在的形式线索,由于有这样的洞察力便有那控制一切的意志把潜在的美变成真实的(诗歌)篇章。

 

4.        lights and shadows       艺术上有 light and shade  明和暗。这里也是指明和暗。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

   文章论述“创作过程”。开门见山就提出“什么是创作”。主要是引用了罗斯的Road to Xanadu 一书来说明创作过程。首先是创作的源泉,洞察分辨,最后意志赋予写作。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        D. 意志。第三段倒数第二句“最终又是意识的思维,通过意志,在其最终的艺术作品中捕捉和体现了这种思想观念”。第五段第三句:“当作者回溯以往事情达到了有意识的水平时,他就具备(准备)了继续创作进程的条件。这种准备工作中有一部分涉及学习媒介——学习一种语言,学习如何写,学习文学形式。”第二段都体现了意志是有意识思维的集中表现。

 

A. 源泉,来源,顾名思义,也是最初的东西。     B. 洞察力,视觉。     C.形式。这三项选择在第二,三段集中说明,见难句译注3及第四题答案。

 

2.        B. 思想观念决定形式。这在最后一段倒数第四句:部分准备工作涉及学习媒介——学习语言,学习如何写,学习文学形式之后“这里要注意文学形式不能强加于思想观念。有证据,虽然很少,表明思想观念产生适合传递它的文学形式。

 

A. 形式决定主题。      C. 形象使美变得真实。      D. 作者在准备写作时处于无意识状态。难句译注3和第四题答案都说明了这三项选择是不对的。

 

3.        A.  偶然的。

 

B. 幸运的,fortuitously一词确实有幸运的之义。但这里上下文含义是A,见难句译注3

 

C. 彻底的,透彻的。         D. 潜在的,可能的。

 

4.        A. 深井(深层的源泉)。见难句译注3和第三句“深层的源泉是无意识思维,内中塞满了各种事实,观点,意识活动的情感。富有想象力的洞察力是一种无意识的活动,在杂乱的土壤中闪烁光辉,忽明忽暗,默默的探索模式和形式。最后,又是有意识的思维,通过意志……。”这里说明回溯过去是在深井阶段进行。

 

B. 视觉,是在探索表现形式。 C. 杂乱的光亮和阴影,明面和暗面。 D. 有意识思维

 

 

 

                 Passage Twenty (NCB in Interpol)

 

The organization known to the world as Interpol has sometimes been described as an outfit of chisel-jawed gimlet-eyed crime fighters who put their lives in jeopardy every working hour. Less flatteringly, Interpol has also been described as a huge filing cabinet, stuffed with clerks choking on their own statistics.

 

As with most generalities, there is some truth in both statements. There are, certainly, some grim battlers of crime to be found working with Interpol. There are, just as surely, those drones shuffling mountains of paper whose cheeks are sallow from indoor life. Consider the charisma of the name alone: INTERPOL, the international police force. Continents leaped in a single bound, oceans crossed in the space of a breath, villains watched by eyes that never sleep. Surprisingly, a lot of it happens almost that way.

 

Four groups coordinate and direct the activities of Interpol. One of them is the National Central Bureaus, or NCBs, bodies designated by the member nations to serve as their link with Interpol. These are the front-line troops, the action people. IN the United States, the Treasury Department is the National Central Bureau. In the United Kingdom, it is Scotland Yard; the Questura in Italy and the Melbourne City Police in Australia. Because police organization varies from country, the NCBs were established to act as the one special group to handle Interpol chores and unsure maximum cooperation between nations. Each NCB is usually an official government body with police powers if a country has only one central police authority, that body becomes the National Centre Bureau. Of course, any service appointed as an NCB is bound to its nations law and authority and retains its national title.

 

Each NCB is connected by radio to the regional station for its geographic zone. The regional stations are connected to the Central Station in France. The radio network is versatile. Network stations can monitor the Central station or any regional station. Because of this messages can be broadcast to more than one station at a time. A coding system determines the urgency of each message so that those with high priority can be given precedence. Besides, other communication tools, such as radio-teleprinters and phototelegraphy equipment. Permit rapid transfers of fingerprints and photographs. Sometimes ever more advanced technology is employed. When the police all over the world were looking for a Canadian named George Leray, they turned to the Early Bird Satellite. Leray had led his gang on a daring holdup of a Montreal bank and gotten away with $4 million. Scotland Yard broadcast Lerays photo to the world by satellite. An American who saw the picture in Florida recognized Leray as a man who was living on a yacht in Fort Lauderdale under an assumed name. The police were alerted and arrested Leray.

 

 

 

1.       What is the best title for this passage?

 

[A]. The Function of the Interpol.           [B]. The Quality of the Interpol.

 

[C]. The Organization of the Interpol.        [D]. The Rapid Development of the Interpol.

 

2.       The organization of this passage is

 

[A]. general to specific.                   [B]. cause and effect.

 

[C]. comparison and contrast.              [D]. development.

 

3.       The sentence stuffed with clerks choking on their own statistics in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to

 

[A]. a lot of employees busying in their work.

 

[B]. many office workers busying with various documents.

 

[C]. crowded with office workers busying with their own collected data.

 

[D]. workers busying in their own information.

 

4.       Which is the easiest tool to communicate?

 

[A]. Satellite.                        [B]. Radio.

 

[B]. Teleprinter.                      [D]. Phototelegraphy.

 

 

 

Vocabulary

 

1.           Interpol                           国际刑警组织

 

2.           outfit                             全班人马,有组织团体

 

3.           chisel-jawed                       仪表英俊的

 

4.           gimlet-eyed                        目光锐利的

 

5.           jeopardy                          危险

 

6.           flatteringly                        奉承

 

7.           choke                            闷死

 

           choking on their own statistics  被自己的统计数字弄的喘不过气来

 

8.           as with most generalities             和大多数笼统说法一样

 

9.           grim                             冷酷的

 

10.       drone                            懒汉,懒洋洋的人

 

11.       shuffle                           反复挪动,乱翻,洗(纸牌)

 

12.       charisma                         超凡的魅力

 

13.       National Central Bureaus             国家中心局

 

14.       Treasury Department                财政部(美)

 

15.       Questura                          警察局(意)

 

16.       Melbourne                         墨尔本警察局

 

17.       chore                             日常零星工作

 

18.       to be bound to                      受……的约束,义务,一定……

 

19.       geographic zone                    地区,地带

 

20.       versatile                          有多方面用途的

 

21.       radio-teleprinter                    无线电打印机

 

22.       phototelegraph                     传真

 

23.       daring                            大胆的

 

24.       holdup                           抢劫

 

25.       alert                              使警惕,使处于待命状态

 

 

 

难句译注

 

1.       The organization known to the world as Interpol has sometimes been described as an outfit of chisel-jawed gimlet-eyed crime fighters who put their lives in jeopardy every working hour. Less flatteringly, Interpol has also been described as a huge filing cabinet, stuffed with clerks choking on their own statistics.

 

[结构简析] 两个句子都是被动语气,都有分词短语。前一句known 修饰organization,后一句stuffed 修饰 cabinet.

 

[参考译文] 闻名于世的国际刑警组织长被描述成一群仪表英俊,目光犀利和罪犯斗争的战士的群体组织。他们的生命无时无刻不处于危险之中。国际刑警组织也被描述为一个大型的档案室,里面挤满了工作人员,他们被自己的统计数字忙得喘不过气来。

 

2.       There are, certainly, some grim battlers of crime to be found working with Interpol. There are, just as surely, those drones shuffling mountains of paper whose cheeks are sallow from indoor life.

 

[结构简析] 这是两个句子,都是引导词there句型。

 

[参考译文] 这里肯定能见到和罪犯斗争的冷酷无情的斗士在国际刑警组织工作,同样可以肯定,这里有那些懒洋洋的人在翻动如山的文件档案,他们的脸颊由于室内生活而消瘦如刀。

 

3.       Continents leaped in a single bound, oceans crossed in the space of a breath, villains watched by eyes that never sleep.

 

[结构简析] 这是省略句。正常句型应该是Continents are leaped in…,Oceans are crossed in, villains are watched by …。

 

[参考译文] 大洲可一步跨过。大洋可以在转眼之间越过,坏蛋可以由日夜不眠的眼睛紧盯着。

 

4.       These are the front-line troops, the action people.

 

[参考译文] 这些人是前线军,具体行动的人(执行人)。

 

 

 

写作方法与文章大意

 

这是一篇介绍国际刑警组织的文章。采用一般到具体的写作方法。头二段是对国际刑警组织的一般介绍,后面是具体到NCB,组成国际刑警组织四个部门之一——国家中心局是各国负责和国际刑警保持联系部门,如英国的苏格兰场,美国的财政部等,最后一段讲联系的多种渠道和方式方法。

 

 

 

答案祥解

 

1.        C. 国际刑警组织。上面文章大意已经说明介绍国际刑警组织,其职能性质只是附带涉及。所以

 

A. B. 不对。    D. 迅速发展,文章没有涉及。

 

2.        A. 文章是一般到具体的组织结构。

 

B. 因果       C. 对比。  不对。    D. 展开,任何文章都得展开。

 

3.        C. stuff=crowd  办公室挤满了工作人员,忙于分析处理收集来的信息和数据。见难句译注1参考译文。

 

A. 有许多雇员忙于工作;  B. 许多办公室人员忙于各种文件;   D. 忙于自己信息的工人。   这三项都没有。

 

4.  B. 无线电通讯。纵然第四段内提及种种手段:卫星,无线电,打印机,传真电报。但无线电通讯仍是他们运用的最方便和最得力的工具,因为他们的无线电网络灵活多用,网络站能监控中央和各地区站点,而且一次能把信息传至好几台。至于卫星,电报,传真电报只是在特殊情况下运行,如快速传送照片,指纹等。所以A. 卫星, C. 无线电打印机, D. 传真电报,不对。

 

 

 

Passage Twenty-one (The Result of the Falling US Dollar)

 

   Like a ticking time bomb, the falling dollar has grabbed the attention of Japan and West Germany, forcing them to consider adopting economic polices the United States advocates. The U.S. government wants the dollar to fall because as the dollar declines in value against the yen and Deutsche mark, U.S. good becomes cheaper. U.S. companies then sell more at home and abroad, and U.S. trade deficit declines. Cries for trade protection abate, and the global free-trade system is preserved.

 

   Then, the cheaper dollar makes it cheaper for many foreign investors to snap up U.S. stocks. That prompts heavy buying from abroadespecially from Japan. Also, if the trade picture is improving, that means U.S. companies eventually will be more competitive. Consequently, many investors are buying shares of export-oriented U.S. companies in anticipation of better profits in the next year or so. But that is a rather faddish notion right now; if corporate earnings are disappointing in interest rates, the stock market rally could stall.

 

   Improving U.S. competitiveness means a decline in anothers competitiveness.

 

   Japan and West Germany are verging on recession. Their export-oriented economies are facing major problems. Japan is worried about the damage the strong yen will do to Japanese trade. West Germany is also worried. Share prices in Frankfurt plummeted this past week. Bonn is thought to be considering a cut in interest rates to boost its economy.

 

   Could the falling dollar get out of hand? If the dollar falls too far, investors might lose confidence in U.S. investmentsespecially the government bond market. The money to finance   the federal budget and trade deficits could migrate elsewhere. Inflation could flare up, too, since Japanese and German manufacturers will eventually pass along price hikesand U.S. companies might follow suit to increase their profit margins. The U.S. federal Reserve then might need to step in and stabilize the dollar by raising interest rates. And higher interest rates could cause the U.S. economy to slow down and end the Wall Street Rally.

 

Worried about these side effects, Federal Reserve chairman